Consider astronomy one of the most ancient scientific disciplines and known to human mankind observation of stars and planets was well known already to ancient civilizations from the Mayan that the Babylonians as recorded by historical records such as astral apes like this one are of Hispanic origin and is Japanese in this fear based on a Korean map of the 14th century. Ancient Greek and developed a very sophisticated astronomical system with Ptolemy in the second century A.D. in the solar system planets moved along orbital shells. This was the simplest astronomical hypothesis but it requires some tweaks to account for some anomalous phenomena. One of those phenomena are well known already to the ancient Greeks the so-called retrograde motion of the planets during the course of the year. The trajectory of any planet in the blue sky and night appeared to form little loops. Now to explain this sloop’s Ptolemy assumed that each planet moved along a small circle called epicycle which in turn moved along a larger circle called deference deferens but neither me nor Ptolemaic astronomers believed that epicycles. And therefore it is essentially a true description of planetary motion. There were more like mathematical contrivances or sophisticated hypotheses that could save her appearance that could save the upper and motions of planets in the blue sky and night. The French philosopher Pierre Duhamel in a short but very illuminating book which was written at the start of the twentieth century called to save the phenomena. Reconstructs the history of physical theory from plate to Galileo. And in that book new captures very well the spirit of ancient Greek astronomy as that of saving the phenomena. So there are lots of quotes from my responses simply shows commentary to restore order and know that nicely captures this idea that the name of science the of ancient Greek astronomy wasn’t really to tell as a true story about planetary motion but to provide us with a system of hypotheses that could save the appearances. So interestingly enough for ancient Greeks the hymn of astronomy was not to provide the true story about planetary motion but just to save the appearances. Not surprisingly in 15 43 when Copernicus book was IBM last year was published. The book came out with a letter to the then Pope Paul the third and he goes very modestly presented these parties as just another hypothesis that could save the appearances although in a kind of a more promising way than that the bodies of his predecessors. This is what Copernicus says in the Court of New Hampshire.
I began myself to consider the movement of the earth. It seemed an absurd notion. Yet I knew that my predecessor had been granted the liberty to imagine all sorts of fictive circles to serve the celestial phenomena. I therefore thought that I will be similarly granted the right to experiment to try out whether by assigning a certain movement to the earth I might be able to find more solid demonstrations of the revolutions of the celestial spheres than those left by my predecessors despite the apologetic tone. Copernicus didn’t hide too much is belief that there is a Euro centric hypothesis was more certain that any of the fictitious hypothesis of his predecessors. Copernicus died at the very same year in which his book was published. The book came out with an anonymous preface which was very carefully crafted by someone called Andreas yonder and the preface somehow mitigated the spirit of Copernicus work by presenting it as yet another exercise in this world thralldom tradition of saving the phenomena for this discernments woman’s job consist of the following go to gather together the history of the celestial movements by means of painstakingly unskillfully made observations and then to think Cap or construct God is as it pleases. As such that on their assumption the selfsame movement’s past and future books can be calculated by means of the principles of geometry. It is not necessary that this hypothesis be true then not even be likely. These things suffices that the calculations through which they lead. Agree with the result of observation. No wonder the publication of Copernicus book didn’t set religious authority aflame until almost a century later when someone else dared to overthrow the received view of astronomy as just saving the phenomena. And there is to say that the Copernican system was actually through the heavens. That person was Galileo arrogant inane
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