The exoskeleton is a flexible, tough integument that covers most arthropods (Michels, Appel & Gorb 2016). The exoskeleton is made of thickened areas where the chitin is stiffened or strengthened by substances including hardened proteins and minerals. The function of the exoskeleton is to protect and support the creature’s body in comparison to the internal skeleton in human beings.
Ecdysis is the procedure where a creature regularly sheds off one part of its body, usually the covering on its exterior layer, during certain times of the year (Rutland, Cigler & Kubale, 2019). Ecdysis occurs because the skeleton of an arthropod is usually inflexible and therefore to grow bigger, arthropods have to shed off the exterior layer.
Appendages are highly complicated structures that consist of many tissues that can individually regenerate. The appendage contains three sections which have jointed appendages and hard exoskeletons. They are also adapted to survive on land with book lungs for breathing and a trachea.
The Malpighian tubules also emit liquids within the posterior intestine whereby they are later reabsorbed, and particular materials are moved to the hemolymph.
The legs in crustaceans are attached in the thorax and the head.
The uniramous appendage contains a single sequence of sections that are connected end-to-end. Biramous limbs are divided into two parts, and every branch includes sections of series that are attached end-to-end.
Millipedes have two pairs of legs in every segment of their bodies while centipedes have one.
The two diverse types of metamorphosis are incomplete and complete metamorphosis whereby the body of insects changes during the lifecycle procedure. The main difference between the two is that complete metamorphosis contains ravenous, active, consuming larva, and a pupa that is inactive while incomplete metamorphosis contains a nymph which looks like a small adult.
Exoskeleton offers an outer layer that is strong and is considered as a shield against environmental dangers and predators (Zhang et al. 2019).
Ecdysis is the procedure where a creature regularly sheds off one part of its body, usually the covering on its exterior layer, during certain times of the year.
Ecdysis occurs because the skeleton of an arthropod is usually inflexible and therefore to grow bigger, arthropods have to shed off the exterior layer.
Arthropods have an open circulatory structure with hemolymph and an analog of blood circulatory system.
The pupa stage is regarded as the missing stage in simple metamorphosis.
The larvae and adults live in diverse habitats to enable them to successfully adapt to the changes in the environment which is beneficial because they use various resources of food.
Wings are helpful to insects because they help them in dispersal, getting a mate and avoiding predators (Lin & Lavine, 2018). Wings further assist insects in producing sound, protection, visual communication, and heat orientation.
In animals, the nervous system is used to transmit and process information thus directing the animal’s response.
Depressants increase the action of the GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) thus inhibiting brain activity.
Daphnia is the best organisms to use in biological studies because they are responsive to alterations in the chemistry of water and are simple to raise in aquariums.
Depressants are fundamentally used in slowing down the different body processes. The effect of depressants on the nervous system is that they reduce the blood pressure, breathing, brain activity, and heart rate.
Lin, X., & Lavine, L. C. (2018). Endocrine regulation of dispersal polymorphism in winged insects: a short review. Current opinion in insect science, 25, 20-24.
Michels, J., Appel, E., & Gorb, S. N. (2016). Functional diversity of resilin in Arthropoda. Beilstein journal of nanotechnology, 7(1), 1241-1259.
Rutland, C. S., Cigler, P., & Kubale, V. (2019). Reptilian Skin and It’s Special Histological Structures. In Veterinary Anatomy and Physiology. IntechOpen.
Zhang, M., Jiao, D., Tan, G., Zhang, J., Wang, S., Wang, J., … & Ritchie, R. O. (2019). Strong, Fracture-Resistant Biomimetic Silicon Carbide Composites with Laminated Interwoven Nano-Architectures Inspired by the Crustacean Exoskeleton. ACS Applied NanoMaterials.