BIOS 252 Week 4 Midterm

Chapter 10 & 11

Questions: 1-9

  1.  Identify and describe intracellular structures (organelles, myofilaments, ect.) of a muscle cell. Contrast skeletal, cardiac and smooth.
  2.  Describe all phases of  twitch.
  3.  Outline the sequence of physiological events of a twitch starting at the motor neurons and ending with movement.
  4.  Describe a neuromuscular junction and identify all major components.
  5.  Describe the connective tissue “packaging” of muscle.
  6.  Describe the major functions of the three types of muscles and the differences between them.
  7.  Describe how skeletal muscles acting across synovial joints function as a lever system. Discriminate between 1st class, 2nd class and 3rd class levers in the human body(provide an example of each)
  8.  Differentiate between isotonic, isometric, eccentric and concentric contractions.
  9.  Identify the muscles involved in relaxed and forced breathing and describe their role.


Chapter 12

Questions: 1-7
  1.  Identify the anatomy of a neuron
  2.  Describe the functional and structural classification of neurons.
  3.  Identify and describe the major divisions of the nervous system.
  4.  List and describe the function/location of all neuroglia cells
  5.  Explain how excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters work on the postsynaptic membrane and give one example of each.
  6.  Describe all steps of an action potential, including initiation by local potential.
  7.  Understand the mechanism of IPSPs and EPSPs.


Chapter 13

Questions: 1-2

  1. Describe the basic anatomy of a spinal cord section, indicating the functional significance of each area/major tract.
  2. Explain the similarities and differences of a spinal withdrawal reflex and a crossed extensor reflex.