- The body maintains a balance of calcium level in the blood at all times. The balance is supported by a various mechanism including absorption of calcium from the intestine, relocation of calcium in and out of the bones, as well as kidney reabsorption and excretion of calcium ion into and out of urine. In general, three hormones control blood calciumcontent in the body, and they include parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin and calcitriol (Leeah, Lindsay, Sierra, Amy, Robin, Joel, Mike, Philip, Katie, Devon, and Jon). Parathyroid gland cells contain plasma membrane receptors while kidneys and bones are referred to as the effectors
When the serum calcium level falls below the optimum concentration (hypoglycemia), the body responds by producing a hormone responsible for restoring balance. The parathyroid gland receptors releases PTH into the circulating blood (Leeah et al.). PTH then signals the born cells (osteoclasts) to release stored calcium into the bloodstream. Furthermore, the hormone stimulates kidney cells to reabsorb calcium into the blood before excretion actively and also aids in the synthesis of an active form of vitamin D which facilitates calcium absorption from digested food in the gut. All these processes normalize blood calcium levels(Leeah et al.). Once there is adequate calcium level to bind with the parathyroid glands receptors, and the hypoglycemia conditions are restored, the homeostatic cycle of events is switched off.
- In a statse when the calcium level in the blood (hyperglycemia) is high, the thyroid gland is stimulated. This leads to the production of calcitonin hormone. The hormone inhibits born cells from releasing stored calcium and at the same time facilitates calcium uptake by the osteoclasts. Also, calcitonin reduces the reabsorption of the mineral by kidneys. Once normal concentration is restored the system is turned off
- Bone maturationis a process through which skeletal body tissues undergo a transformation from embryonic rudiment bone into adult bone. Generally, females, at any given age, experience advanced bone development when compared to males. This difference between male and female bone is observed at birth, and it persists through the entire development stages, and particular more prominent at puberty stage (Mora and Vicente). Moreover, the process of skeletal maturation process lasts for a more extended period in males than in females. According to Mora and Vicente, the reason for this gender disparity has not been established. However, Nevertheless, some studies have explained the difference in terms of estrogen and androgen in which they argue that the role of estrogen in controlling skeletal muscles in pubertal girls is more prominent compared to androgen in men.
- At adulthood, bones are considered as mature. At this stage, both male and female bones indicate a dramatic difference. For instance, female bones complete development at adulthood quicker than those in the male’s bones (“The Difference Between Male and Female Skeletons”). Female bones complete development up to age 18 years while the bones in men’s body take relatively longer time, up to around 21 years of age (“The Difference Between Male and Female Skeletons”). Furthermore, male bones undergo continuous development and they become longer (on average) and have rounded corners compared to female’s bones have more pronounced corners. These reasons explain the difference in sizes of bones in both the gender. For example, in male’s jaw bones are larger and more pronounced compared to female’s additionally, male skeletons are generally thicker and longer in both arms, legs as well as fingers.
- Hormones have direct control of bone loss during menopause. Estrogen, for instance, has a dramatic influence on bone loss in females during this period which may lead to osteoporosis. After menopause, for example, bone breakdown exceeds development of new bones. In contrast, early onset of menopause forty years leads low estrogen in women (Menopause & Osteoporosis). Thus, a period of infrequent menstrual cycle occurs characterized by moderate which causes loss of bone mass. Compared to men, women at fifty years and above of age are likely to suffer from osteoporosis than men. During the stage, women are composed of lighter and thinner bones compared to their male counterparts.
Leeah Whittier, Biga Sierra Dawson, Amy Harwell, Robin Hopkins, Joel Kaufmann, Mike LeMaster, Philip Matern, Katie Morrison-Graham, Devon Quick, and Jon Runyeon. “Calcium Homeostasis: Interactions of the Skeletal System and Other Organ Systems.” Open Oregon State- Open Text Books, http://library.open.oregonstate.edu/aandp/chapter/6-7-calcium-homeostasis-interactions-of-the-skeletal-system-and-other-organ-systems/ .Accessed 16 April 2019
Mora, Stefano and Vicente, Gilsanz. “Pubertal Growth of the Male Skeleton.” Osteoporosis in Men. Academic Press, 2010, 95-103, https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/bone-maturation Accessed 16 April 2019
“The Difference Between Male and Female Skeletons.” Top ten reviews. (2019), https://www.toptenreviews.com/home/articles/the-difference-between-male-and-female-skeletons/ Accessed 16 April 2019
Menopause & Osteoporosis. Cleveland Clinic, https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/10091-menopause–osteoporosis. Accessed 16 April 2019