The study ascertains the ways in which chronic pain affects the quality of life of both adolescents and their families. In particular, the study focused on non somatic diseases and the resultant impacts on the adolescents. In so doing, the gap that is occasionally left by other studies in the past was effectively covered ion this research. The impact of focusing on one aspect of the population is important in deviating from the normal generalizations made in the research field. The focus on adolescents widens the literature review on the effects of chronic pain by tackling a niche that is rarely pursued.
Ethical considerations are a key aspect of research process and researchers have always considered the impacts of being ethical. In this regard, Hunfield et al, (2001) validated their research through several reputable research ethics board. For instance, between 1999 and 2000, the study was validated by Erasmus University through the Department of Medical Psychology and Physiotherapy. The evidence of the thoroughness of these reviews is manifested in the three revisions that were demanded before the publication of the research paper. Even after the research was accepted, the paper was then reviewed by the Journal of pediatric Psychology preceding its publication in 2000. Ethical consideration was not confined to the reviews but included the seeking of consent from the publication of the participants’ narrations. In fact, the researchers did notify the participants of the intended use of their testimonies in the research. It is therefore in order to assume that the paper complied with the ethical aspects of research during its study and eventual publication.
The study’s focus on the particular responses of the participants renders the research a purely experimental process. Moreover, the formulation of the hypotheses in the research coupled with the nature of the research dictates that it be purely experimental to attain the objectives of the study. In contrast, having a different research design would not have led to the full attainment of the research objectives. In addition, the nature of the research also prompts for a longitudinal research design because of the need for long term observations. However, the longitudinal approach is poor because of the fact that it requires much more time compared to other designs. The study was not an isolated case in terms of the threats to internal validity and faced the same prospects as any other research. In particular, bias was most likely due to repeated testing of the participants. This bias was avoided through minimization of repetitive questions due to its threat to internal validity. Moreover, the participants were questioned in isolation to reduce the incidence of bias (Hunfield et al, 2001). Further, the use of different researchers presented occasional instrumentation and posed another threat to internal validity.
The sampling method employed is known as convenience sample and was based on convenience as it was obtained from a bigger previous sample. In the sampling, only participants from the past sample that had experienced chronic pain for a period exceeding three months. However, despite the convenience of the period chosen, it was also a loophole that threatened the incidence of bias. By focusing on a smaller sample, the study disallowed the input of other participants with useful insights on the conditions under study. In fact, the study defined the qualifications of the study based on the period of chronic pain suffered by the participants. Further, setting these qualifications could have resulted in some participants lying just to be included therefore presenting another weakness to the study’s validity.
Data collection has been identified as one of the primary functions of research and thus presents a defining step in the process. In this study, the methodology focused on the use of questionnaires for both adolescents and their mothers. The questionnaires were then disseminated to the respondents by mail beforehand. The adolescents were required to fill self reports by recording their intensity of pain through three weeks. However, the self rep[orts were only done after filling an initial questionnaires. The mothers on the other hand were required to fill the questionnaires based on the pains that troubled their children more. Moreover, observations were incorporated in detailing the pain intensities among the adolescents. This development is reflected in the report through the thorough explanation of the observatory components of the research.
Besides the reporting of the identified results, the researchers discuss the impact of the results in details focusing on their implications on the adolescents and their families. In addition, the study points out the particular impacts of the results in the future research of the clinical practice field. Further, the drawbacks identified in the research are utilized in showing the various gaps in the research field that can be pursued in future. The suggestions in the recommendations section of the research form the basis for future research in the field.
Hunfeld, J. A., Perquin, C. W., Duivenvoorden, H. J., Hazebroek-Kampschreur, A. A., Passchier, J., van Suijlekom-Smit, L. W., & van der Wouden, J. C. (2001). Chronic pain and its impact on quality of life in adolescents and their families. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 26(3), 145-153.
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