Motivation encompasses internal and external factors that drive an individual to pursue and satisfy unsatisfied needs. Precisely, the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors in an individual results to motivation. Motivation is the psychological process that arouse enthusiasm and persistence in a person to achieve personal and organizational goals (Fisher, 2009).
In the past, organizations or firms considered employees as mere factors of production. In this era, things have changed, and managers prioritize the needs and motivation of employees. Managers motivate employees to help their organizations survive the competitive nature of the market. Similarly, motivated employees are usually more productive, and this is what an organization requires.
Moreover, employee motivation is due to the intensity of desire, the reward value of the goal, and an individual or peers’ expectation (Ramprasad, 2013). According to the research carried out, most employees became less motivated by money when their income increase. Also, others become interested with their work as they grow older.
The purpose of this research was to analyze a case of company X by comparing the motivation concept of part-time and permanent employees in home cleaning and housekeeping service. Besides, the paper provides a vivid explanation of two theories of motivation that include Mayo theory and Herzberg theory. Additionally, the paper describes the motivational factors such as communication, leadership, job rotation and recognition/rewards and how they determine the rate employees keep on quitting the job.
According to Boylan (2013), Elton Mayo formed Mayo theory of motivation at the Hawthorne factory in Chicago between the year 1927 and 1932. The theory focused on examining the social needs of the workers. Mayo argued that employees cannot be motivated to put their best effort to achieve productivity by pay alone. Therefore, Elton Mayo believed that employees’ social needs should be taken into consideration. Mayo’s recommendation to the employers was that they should treat their workers fairly and demonstrate an interest in them so that they could produce the best work.
When carrying out the study at the Hawthorne factory, Mayo was interested in finding out the effect of lighting on the company’s workers and also their performances (Boylan, 2013). From his series of experiments, Mayo isolated two groups of women employees to determine the impact of lighting and working conditions on their productivity level. The primary focus of Mayo’s research was to determine whether electricity light would keep workers awake hence fueling their output, or whether the artificial light would affect workers and make them more tired (Boylan, 2013). The results of the study were different, and Mayo discovered that the productivity level of the workers improved or remained the same with the change in lighting or working conditions.
From the results of the study, Mayo concluded that the following factors affect employee motivation. First, better communication between the workers and the managers is essential in motivating them. Mayo encouraged upward communication so that workers can communicate with the top executives and vice versa. Similarly, companies need to interpret other’s emotions and open to their feelings. Second, employers should demonstrate cohesive and good leadership in employees working lives. Greater manager involvement will help to communicate the company’s goals and ensure efficient decision-making process. Third, according to the theory, the financial incentives or rewards has little motivational value to the employees. Precisely, since individuals value working as a team, they consider money and good working environment as less important.
According to Malik and Naeem (2013), Fredrick Herzberg developed a two-factor theory to determine the worker’s attitude towards their jobs in 1954. Herzberg conducted a research study on 200 engineers and accountant in Pittsburgh. From the study, Herzberg concluded, the factors that satisfy workers are entirely different from those that make them dissatisfied. The assumption of Herzberg’s theory is that a person’s motivation results from his/her job (Malik, & Naeem, 2013). Therefore, the external characteristics do not play any role in motivating employees.
A person will not achieve satisfaction by addressing a dissatisfaction issue. It will be to the interest of the company to introduce a motivational factor to create satisfaction among the employees. Therefore, Herzberg identified motivation and hygiene as factors that lead to employee job satisfaction and productivity. Precisely, Herzberg believed that the satisfaction of an individual came from the motivating factors that include responsibility, achievement, recognition, growth and promotion (Malik, & Naeem, 2013). According to Herzberg, these factors contribute directly to motivating employees to achieve the desired goals.
On the other hand, hygiene factors are essential needs that people require in a working environment. They include job security, the working conditions, supervision, the company’s policy, pay and benefits and job title (Malik, & Naeem, 2013). The top executives or leaders need a good relationship with the workers, provide reasonable conditions, pay, and benefits for the services offered. Therefore, communication is necessary for an organization to reinforce the hygiene factors. For example, the company should ensure the health and safety video for the new employees does its job well and satisfy their needs. Similarly, good leadership, reward system, and fair job rotation are enough to motivate workers and increase job satisfaction.
Motivational factors on employees
Companies consider employee motivation to maintain their productivity. One of the factors that influence motivation is communication. Communication refers to an act by which individuals transfer information from one place to another. An organization requires an honest and two-way communication between the employees and the management. Besides, a prosperous internal communication in an organization supports mutual understanding between various departments by contributing to the business objectives.
According to Fisher (2009), it is the role of the organization to develop information flow through the various management levels since it is one of the primary determinants of effective communication. Organizations with effective communication results to workers developing a positive attitude towards the company hence increasing motivation, satisfaction and willingness to provide a better outcome.
For the case of company X that deals with both part-time and permanent employees in the home cleaning and housekeeping service, the company faces a serious problem with employee retention. The management came to understand that the workers keep on quitting, and those available
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