Motivation encompasses internal and external factors that drive an individual to pursue and satisfy unsatisfied needs. Precisely, the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors in an individual results to motivation. Motivation is the psychological process that arouse enthusiasm and persistence in a person to achieve personal and organizational goals (Fisher, 2009).
In the past, organizations or firms considered employees as mere factors of production. In this era, things have changed, and managers prioritize the needs and motivation of employees. Managers motivate employees to help their organizations survive the competitive nature of the market. Similarly, motivated employees are usually more productive, and this is what an organization requires.
Moreover, employee motivation is due to the intensity of desire, the reward value of the goal, and an individual or peers’ expectation (Ramprasad, 2013). According to the research carried out, most employees became less motivated by money when their income increase. Also, others become interested with their work as they grow older.
The purpose of this research was to analyze a case of company X by comparing the motivation concept of part-time and permanent employees in home cleaning and housekeeping service. Besides, the paper provides a vivid explanation of two theories of motivation that include Mayo theory and Herzberg theory. Additionally, the paper describes the motivational factors such as communication, leadership, job rotation and recognition/rewards and how they determine the rate employees keep on quitting the job.
According to Boylan (2013), Elton Mayo formed Mayo theory of motivation at the Hawthorne factory in Chicago between the year 1927 and 1932. The theory focused on examining the social needs of the workers. Mayo argued that employees cannot be motivated to put their best effort to achieve productivity by pay alone. Therefore, Elton Mayo believed that employees’ social needs should be taken into consideration. Mayo’s recommendation to the employers was that they should treat their workers fairly and demonstrate an interest in them so that they could produce the best work.
When carrying out the study at the Hawthorne factory, Mayo was interested in finding out the effect of lighting on the company’s workers and also their performances (Boylan, 2013). From his series of experiments, Mayo isolated two groups of women employees to determine the impact of lighting and working conditions on their productivity level. The primary focus of Mayo’s research was to determine whether electricity light would keep workers awake hence fueling their output, or whether the artificial light would affect workers and make them more tired (Boylan, 2013). The results of the study were different, and Mayo discovered that the productivity level of the workers improved or remained the same with the change in lighting or working conditions.
From the results of the study, Mayo concluded that the following factors affect employee motivation. First, better communication between the workers and the managers is essential in motivating them. Mayo encouraged upward communication so that workers can communicate with the top executives and vice versa. Similarly, companies need to interpret other’s emotions and open to their feelings. Second, employers should demonstrate cohesive and good leadership in employees working lives. Greater manager involvement will help to communicate the company’s goals and ensure efficient decision-making process. Third, according to the theory, the financial incentives or rewards has little motivational value to the employees. Precisely, since individuals value working as a team, they consider money and good working environment as less important.
According to Malik and Naeem (2013), Fredrick Herzberg developed a two-factor theory to determine the worker’s attitude towards their jobs in 1954. Herzberg conducted a research study on 200 engineers and accountant in Pittsburgh. From the study, Herzberg concluded, the factors that satisfy workers are entirely different from those that make them dissatisfied. The assumption of Herzberg’s theory is that a person’s motivation results from his/her job (Malik, & Naeem, 2013). Therefore, the external characteristics do not play any role in motivating employees.
A person will not achieve satisfaction by addressing a dissatisfaction issue. It will be to the interest of the company to introduce a motivational factor to create satisfaction among the employees. Therefore, Herzberg identified motivation and hygiene as factors that lead to employee job satisfaction and productivity. Precisely, Herzberg believed that the satisfaction of an individual came from the motivating factors that include responsibility, achievement, recognition, growth and promotion (Malik, & Naeem, 2013). According to Herzberg, these factors contribute directly to motivating employees to achieve the desired goals.
On the other hand, hygiene factors are essential needs that people require in a working environment. They include job security, the working conditions, supervision, the company’s policy, pay and benefits and job title (Malik, & Naeem, 2013). The top executives or leaders need a good relationship with the workers, provide reasonable conditions, pay, and benefits for the services offered. Therefore, communication is necessary for an organization to reinforce the hygiene factors. For example, the company should ensure the health and safety video for the new employees does its job well and satisfy their needs. Similarly, good leadership, reward system, and fair job rotation are enough to motivate workers and increase job satisfaction.
Motivational factors on employees
Companies consider employee motivation to maintain their productivity. One of the factors that influence motivation is communication. Communication refers to an act by which individuals transfer information from one place to another. An organization requires an honest and two-way communication between the employees and the management. Besides, a prosperous internal communication in an organization supports mutual understanding between various departments by contributing to the business objectives.
According to Fisher (2009), it is the role of the organization to develop information flow through the various management levels since it is one of the primary determinants of effective communication. Organizations with effective communication results to workers developing a positive attitude towards the company hence increasing motivation, satisfaction and willingness to provide a better outcome.
For the case of company X that deals with both part-time and permanent employees in the home cleaning and housekeeping service, the company faces a serious problem with employee retention. The management came to understand that the workers keep on quitting, and those available do not meet the deadline. Concerning communication, ineffective internal communication in an organization will result in employee quitting jobs and also not meeting the set deadline for the task.
It is significant for the management to show initiative to its employees in expressing their suggestions, ideas, and concerns. Such actions portray crucial steps in identifying and understanding any existing problems in an organization (Lundberg, Gudmundson, & Andersson, 2009). The role played by communication is help employees understand their responsibilities so that they can build their own decisions that are in line with the expectation of the company. Therefore, without proper interaction between the management and the employee, there would be no understanding hence reduced motivation that will result to low productivity.
Improper Information distribution can also cause employees to quit their jobs and not meet deadlines (Ramprasad, 2013). Unless the information being distributed is confidential, the company should always provide information they consider vital. Such information may include the changes in the workforce or company’s business focus. For example, if there is a rumor that the company might shut down or lay off its employee, the best response a company should make is distribute the information accurately and immediately.
Ultimately, improper skill set training programs due to poor communication between the management and employee will result in late submission of the tasks and employee retention problems. Mostly, employees would like to work in an environment where they can learn and improve their skills. Therefore, without career development assistance they search for companies that offer training programs to upgrade their skills and productivity.
Secondly, leadership entails directing and influencing the activities of a certain group of individuals. Similarly, it encompasses the ability to provide plans and persuade individuals to stand firm during difficult periods (Berg, Dutton, & Wrzesniewski, 2013). Therefore, a leader will try to get his/her followers do what they have been allocated. For leadership to sustain, it must include capability and effectiveness. The relationship between the leader and his followers is characterized by their social and interpersonal interactions.
In most cases the leader has powers to influence the behavior of the group members. In case the leader misuses the powers, employees will be dissatisfied and quit their jobs, or they will be unable to meet the deadline. According to (Bellé, 2013), leaders have the following advantage over the followers: formal authority, knowledge, information and experience, distinct personality characteristics and resources for distributing rewards, penalties, and favors.
Company X failed to attain an extraordinary success due to its inefficient leaders. Managers are required to direct, guide and influence the workers; however, without such capabilities, employees will be less motivated hence failing to achieve the desired results. They will not meet the deadline, and others will quit since the leader does not guide them towards the right direction. The leader should guide and take the lead in all activities involved in the organization. Moreover, a leader should use his powers in the best interest of the workers.
Second, leaders create confidence. A good leadership creates confidence in an organization through making the right decision, providing honest advice and good direction. Without confidence, employees will be uncertain about their future in the organization and some of them may decide to quit (Berg, Dutton, & Wrzesniewski, 2013). They will be reluctant to provide quality work, and others may end up failing to meet the deadline. The leaders in company X must build strong confidence to fulfill the objective of the organization.
Ultimately, leadership creates employees motivation. Employees are motivated through inspirations and encouragements. In a situation when leaders fail to inspire, encourage or persuade their employees to work for their interest and that of the company, then there will be a decrease in productivity and stability in the organization. Motivation makes employees meet their deadline and continue to work without thinking of quitting their jobs since they are inspire to greatness and positive change.
Third, job rotation involves systematic movement of employees by the organization from one job to another. Such an action increases the number of tasks an employee performs without necessarily increasing the complexity of the work being done. Besides, job rotation makes use of engineering efficiencies and also provide employees with variety and stimulation (Bellé, 2013). At first, employees might find the new job to be interesting; however, after mastering and doing repetitive work, they will start to wear off.
Moreover, companies use the concept of job rotation to train a flexible workforce that will improve the productivity of the organization (Bellé, 2013). Similarly, companies advocate for job rotation to allow its employees to perform several task and reduce the labor cost. Also, job rotation provides individuals with an opportunity to develop new skills. Mostly, employees would like to be involved in job rotation to boost their skills and gain more experience.
For the case of company X, it faces the problem of employee retention since employees are tired of doing the same task every day. The workers require breaking the monotony. Therefore, It would be Important if the home cleaning and housekeeping employee are given a variety of task but with the same complexity. When workers move from one job to another, they develop new working environment, social dialogue, and professional fields. This increases the morale and motivation among the employees.
Moreover, workers will be motivated to continue working if the task they undertake will develop their skills, improve their knowledge and competency. It is considered a training means that facilitates employees’ acquisition of skills. Therefore, when employees work in more than one department, they will acquire a vast knowledge and skills that are related to the critical functional areas of the company. It allows employees to be connected in different functional areas and provide then with a better knowledge of the business.
Similarly, job rotation motivates employees by promoting social interaction. Working with a variety of people at different periods, results to the development of human relations and also supports internal and external communication between the managers and the workers. Employees who work together in a social context are more likely to solve any problem that might arise (Lundberg, Gudmundson, & Andersson, 2009). However, job rotation that involve geographic change will have a negative effect on employee’s social and family life and this will decrease the level of motivation.
Ultimately, employers use recognition/rewards to motivate their employees and increase the productivity of the company. Rewards are positive outcome that employees earn due to their performance (Bellé, 2013). Moreover, employers usually align the rewards offered to the employees with the organizational goals. Therefore, a reward will follow when the company achieves one of its objectives. Similarly, employees wish the company considers them as an integral part of the organization. On a further note, they need to have their own identity and appear distinctive.
If an organization wants to improve its productivity or retain its employees, it must increase greater rewards to the various outcomes employees are associated with (Lundberg, Gudmundson, & Andersson, 2009). Similarly, if the employers want to reduce the number of activities in an organization, they will simply reduce the rewards offered to the employees. It is common for companies to increase the percentage of commission on the tasks done if they want their employees to meet the deadline.
Company X faces a challenge to retain quality employees. The high turnover affects the morale of the company since it is hard to train new employees and get them up to speed. The management can recognize the achievement of employees by congratulating their good work performance or displaying their achievement on the notice board. Also, employees can be recognized by being awarded certificates of merits. Such acts create motivational currency hence making the company retain most of its employees, and also it results to employees meeting the various deadlines sets.
Extrinsic rewards are mainly tangible, and they may include incentives, bonuses and salary. Salary has a direct relationship with the efficiency of the worker (Berg, Dutton, & Wrzesniewski, 2013). The company must employ a successful extrinsic reward to get better performance. The main work of a company is to motivate its employees. Therefore, pay, incentives and bonuses play critical roles in motivating employees. When they are given to employees, they will be satisfied and work hard to achieve the set goals.
Intrinsic rewards are intangible hence cannot be touched, but employees can only feel. They include appreciation, job rotation, satisfaction, and caring attitude. Similarly, they are derived from the job itself (Berg, Dutton, & Wrzesniewski, 2013). Employees’ loyalty to the company will depend on how they are recognized or rewarded. For the case of company X, employees can be motivated to complete the tasks within the date set if they will be appreciated and cared well. Job rotation and satisfaction be the employers can motivate employee to be loyal to the company.
It refers to the visual or written product that describes either in narrative form or graphically what the research is all about. Similarly, it explains the relationships among the variables (Curry, Nembhard, & Bradley, 2009). Moreover, a conceptual framework entails the actual ideas about the phenomena studies. It is important to understand that a conceptual framework is a model that describes what the researcher is planning to study and what is going on with the variables and why (Curry, Nembhard, & Bradley, 2009). Precisely, it represents a tentative theory of what is being investigated. Therefore, it helps the researcher to refine the goals, develop relevant research questions and select appropriate research methods to make a valid conclusion.
It involves the use of sampling technique that emphasize on objective measurement and numerical analysis of data. The numerical data collected are normally generalized across a group of individuals to explain a particular phenomenon. Precisely it entails the use of a questionnaire and descriptive statistics. A questionnaire refers to a set of written or printed questions designed by the researcher with the purpose to extract specific information from the respondents (Olson, 2013). The researcher can decide to administer questionnaire either by telephone, as handouts or by mail. Sometimes you can administer it electronically through web-based questionnaire. The variable to be measured in this particular research include both the housekeeping and home cleaning employees.
Questionnaires require the respondent to choose specific answers from the given ones and also, they not required to explain the answers. When a researcher selects a sample of the population and asks them the same question, he/she will be able to build a clear picture of the problem in question (Olson, 2013). For example, concerning company X, the researcher might find the reasons that why employees keep on quitting their jobs and submit their tasks late by repeating the same questions to a lot of respondents.
Descriptive statistics is a data analysis method that researchers use to describe the essential features of the collected data. The researcher will tend to provide a summary of the samples and measures with simple graphic analysis (Curry, Nembhard, & Bradley, 2009). Similarly, researchers find it ideal to present a quantitative description of the data in a manageable form. We can use descriptive statistics measure the number of employees who quit jobs in both part-time and permanent home cleaning and housekeeping services and compare the units.
It provides insights into the issue being studied. The researcher will employ qualitative research to gain an understanding of the target audience’s range of behavior, reasons and motivation (Losby, Else, Kingslow, Edgcomb, Malm, & Kao, 2002). Similarly, the researcher can generate ideas or hypothesis that will be useful for quantitative research. The data collection method under qualitative research includes interview and observation. Besides, the data analysis method include Pareto diagram and brainstorming/ electronic brainstorming.
Interviewing involves a researcher asking the participants questions while getting the answers. The purpose of carrying out an interview is to explore the experience, opinions, motivation and beliefs of people on a certain problem under study (Curry, Nembhard, & Bradley, 2009). Researchers will prefer interviews to questionnaires to get a deeper understanding of the social phenomena. Also, researchers will employ the use of interview to carry out research when exploring sensitive topics that are confidential and cannot be talked in a group environment. It is imperative for the researcher to neutral and understandable questions that are likely to yield much information.
Observation refers to a systematic approach that the researchers use to collect data by selecting and recording the behavior of people in their environment. It is mainly used to generate an in-depth description of the event and also to access information that cannot be obtained by other research methods (Olson, 2013). Direct observation is ideal since it reduces distortion of the researched information. Moreover, observation involves both participant and non-participant observation method. Participant observation entails intensive social interaction between the researcher and the elements studied. On the other hand, non-participant observation involves limited interaction, and also it provide limited insight into the issue studied.
Brainstorming/electronic brainstorming is a technique that the researcher use in a group setting to generate a large number of ideas about the subject studied. Therefore, brainstorming helps a person to be creative in thinking, and also it encourage the generation of enthusiasm (Chulvi, González-Cruz, Mulet, & Aguilar-Zambrano, 2013). Secondly, it encourages people to participate and build on other people’s ideas. Lastly, it helps an individual to avoid the paralysis of analysis. The goals of employing brainstorming is to generate ideas and after brainstorming, the group will reduce the list of ideas generated to the most important items. The group will then discuss each item and eliminate those that do not apply to the problem studied.
A Pareto diagram refers to a bar chart that is used to analyze variable by ranking the related measures in a decreasing order of their occurrence. The Pareto principle is based on the fact that there is an unequal distribution of things in the world (Curry, Nembhard, & Bradley, 2009). Therefore, the primary purpose of the Pareto diagram is to separate the important aspects of an issue from the trivial ones. The following ways are used to analyze Pareto data. First, the researcher can use counts Pareto to learn which category of data occurs most often. Second, you can employ cost Pareto to know the category of the problem that is most expensive.
In research, triangulation entails the use of more than one data source to collect information on the same topic. Researchers use this method to assure the validity of their research by using a variety of research methods to collect data and produce understanding (Curry, Nembhard, & Bradley, 2009). Similarly, it involves the use of different samples. However, it is not necessarily that triangulation is meant to validate data, but it is used by the researchers to capture varied dimensions of the same phenomenon.
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