Question One


Nitrogen gas is an essential element of the biological compounds. It exists as a free element in the atmosphere constituting to 78% of the gases available. Nitrogen cannot be utilized in its raw form by most organisms; instead it is converted through fixation. The element is fixed

By biological, chemical and physical means. The cycle starts with the conversion of nitrogen to ammonia using electrical charges present in the atmosphere. In some cases, free nitrogen is oxidized to nitrate at various stages. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria and blue algae play a significant role in changing atmospheric nitrogen into organic compounds and eventually to nitrate ions that can be absorbed by plants. The plants use consumed nitrates to manufacture amino acids and proteins. Herbivores depend on the plants for their food, when both animals and plants die, they decompose releasing nitrogen into the atmosphere.

Living organisms such as animals and plants cannot survive in the absence of nitrogen. It forms an essential component of their cells and processes which include protein, DNA and amino acids. Nitrogen is necessary for making chlorophyll in plants that are essential for the process of photosynthesis.

Question Two


Carbon dioxide enters the interior part of the leaf through the pores called stomata. It then diffuses into the stroma located in the chloroplast, and this is where the synthesis of sugar takes place. The presence of light does not directly trigger the reaction, thus called the light-independent reaction. At some point especially during the day, carbon dioxide atoms are fixed leading to the formation of three-carbon sugars. This process is facilitated by ATP and NADPH which results from light reactions.  The process of photosynthesis is essential to the earth since it helps to reduce global warming by consuming carbon dioxide which is a byproduct.




In the initial stage, each did not have vegetation (leafy) and other organisms such as bacteria and animals. This means the metabolic processes that use oxygen and give out carbon dioxide were not there. As a result, this led to the accumulation of carbon dioxide because the bacteria processes were minimal. Before the evolution of the photosynthesis process, the earth had no free carbon dioxide.


Question Three.


The climatic conditions are greatly influenced by Earth’s energy system which is driven by radiant heat from the sun. The primary source of earth’s energy is the emission of the sun’s radiation, and the balance of the two energies is maintained by the diverse reactions as well as processes. The gravitational energy and solar energy constitutes to climatic changes. Ideally, the black body absorbs energy that hits it in the form of electromagnetic waves, and this causes the body to warm thus becoming the source of radiation. The systematic get and give of energy results in a state of equilibrium in which the incoming radiation balances with the outgoing one.

Question Four

The horizontal variation salinity and temperature cause thermohaline circulation. In this process, the seawater is frequently replaced with water from the surface displaces water on another surface at different depths. The process causes tremendous removal of water even though it occurs gradually. The water that is moved carries solids, nutrients and heat too far place thereby making surfaces warmer. Thermohaline causes significant changes in the climate especially regions neighboring the coast.

Question Five.

The changes in solar radiation results in both positive and negative impacts on the global climate. For instance, extreme temperature cause global warming which affects both living organisms. When animals and plants fail to service, the nitrogen cycle and carbon oxide cycle would be terminated. If the temperatures are moderate, the bodies would be able to live in the environment making the ecosystem suitable to support life. Therefore, the continuous changes in solar energy or solar radiation cause effects on the global climate.


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