Aims of this Study
The aims of this study include; first, to determine whether there is a relation between levels of transformational leadership, the trait of agreeableness, and the facets of the trait of agreeableness. Second, to identify if transformational leadership can be predicted by the trait of agreeableness. Third, to know if transformational leadership is predicted by the facets of agreeableness (Banks, McCauley, Gardner, & Guler, 2016).
Findings of this Study
Simple linear regression determines whether there is a relation between the transformational leadership and overall agreeableness. Overall agreeableness was taken as an explanatory variable, while transformational leadership is a response variable. Moreover, agreeableness was a non-essential variable to predict transformational leadership (Banks, McCauley, Gardner, & Guler, 2016). Multiple regression determines whether transformational leadership is related to agreeableness. Six facets were taken as the independent variables and transformational leadership was taken as the dependent variable (Banks, McCauley, Gardner, & Guler, 2016). Agreeableness facets predict more about transformational leadership than the overall agreeableness.
Implicit Issues in the Study
Enhancing training to undergraduate agricultural students to be positive and strong leaders is most significant, and it has a great impact on the industries they work within. Transformational leadership is a positive form of leadership. Supervisors with transformational leadership are effective and followers tend to view them (Engelen, Gupta, Strenger & Brettel, 2015). Embracing the relations of leadership and personality will increase the quality of educational interventions accordingly.
The transformational leadership to undergraduate agricultural students is related to outcomes, tasks, personal development, and consideration of follower well-being (Engelen, Gupta, Strenger & Brettel, 2015). Therefore, transformational leadership involves motivating or inspiring followers to be strong on challenges, advising followers to enlighten creativity and treating each follower as an individual. In transformational leadership, leaders are not more committed to their organization than leaders in non-transformational leaders (Engelen, Gupta, Strenger & Brettel, 2015). Generally, transformational leadership is regarded positively towards the follower’s development and care. The model is comprised of five primary personal traits; neuroticism, agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness. The primary focus of transformational leadership is the virtue that is most closely related to personal styles of leadership. (Ghasabeh, Soosay & Reaiche, 2015). There are six facets of agreeableness trait; tender-mindedness, modesty, compliance, altruism, straightforwardness, and trust. Tender-mindedness is where individuals are guided by their feelings. People whose minds are tender are good leaders in an organization according to the organizational perspective (Ghasabeh, Soosay & Reaiche, 2015). Modesty leads to prosocial behaviors, altruistic behaviors, and exceptional performance. Individuals who were modest are non-competitive with others, respectful and supportive. People with compliance defer from others and are able to cooperate (Ghasabeh, Soosay & Reaiche, 2015). Altruism is the state of being concerned for others and selflessness in a courteous and considerate way. Straightforwardness is directness and frankness when interacting with others (Hawkins, 2017). Trust is to have a positive belief on other people. Transformational leadership had a positive relationship with individuals whose minds are tender (Hawkins, 2017).
The Quality of Supporting Data and Evidence Related to the Issue
The survey research methods were used in the study to identify the objectives of the research. Undergraduate agricultural leadership was the target population for the study. The reason for targeting the agricultural leadership students is that students want to be leaders in the future in different industries ( Hermosilla, Amutio, Da Costa & Páez, 2016). The level of relationship between agreeableness of undergraduate agricultural students and transformational leadership was pertinent. The method of sampling used in the study was convenience sampling and it was only appropriate when given the population of interest ( Hermosilla, Amutio, Da Costa & Páez, 2016). For instance, participants responses were collected in a single class period during the spring semester of 2013 using a questionnaire and the number of students was sixty-five. Ninety-two percent of students responded with sixty completed surveys. The multifactor leadership questionnaire was to put down the engagement level by the respondents in the study during the measurement of transformational leadership. Multifactor leadership questionnaire is expensive (Hermosilla, Amutio, Da Costa & Páez, 2016). The respondents gave wrong information about their engagement. The international personality item pool representation, especially a researcher adapted version was used to measure the personality trait agreeableness. The researcher used the method that requires respondents to indicate their agreement level with each of the agreeableness traits with four statements, this is tiresome to the respondents, thus respondents may fail to give information. Responses were recorded using SPSS for computer analysis.
Key Assumptions and the Influence of the Context
The most important thing while educating future agricultural industry leaders is to develop positive forms of leadership in undergraduate students. Training the agricultural students who are undergraduate to be optimistic leaders will have a great effect in industries (Mittal & Dhar, 2015). Leaders had a direct impact on their organizations and the individuals around them because leaders acquire the behavior they tolerate and exhibit. One of the positive forms of leadership is transformational leadership. Leaders who exhibit transformational leadership are more effective than non-transformational leaders (Mittal & Dhar, 2015). There are no studies associated with transformational leadership and personal traits on agricultural students (Qu, Jansse & Shi, 2015). Agricultural practitioners and educators have been challenged to provide and design instruction accordingly on teaching leadership without knowledge on the nature of the relationship between personality and leadership. Agricultural leadership development is a priority to develop positive leadership characteristics in both professional and academic settings (Qu, Jansse & Shi, 2015). There is extensive understanding of factors that affect leadership, hence more knowledge is needed to plan and implement (Qu, Jansse & Shi, 2015). Overall agreeableness is statistically insignificant variable in predicting transformational leadership.
Conclusions, Implications, and Consequences
There was a non-essential relationship between overall agreeableness in undergraduate agricultural leadership students and transformational leaders who were examined. Overall agreeableness was statistically insignificant to predict transformational leadership on regression analysis. The negative impacts of straightforwardness and modesty had a nullification impact on the positive effects of altruism, compliance, and tender-mindedness. However, transformational leadership was predicted by modesty variable. Therefore, negative direct effect between transformational leadership and modesty was not expected, since in previous research agreeableness was positively related to transformational leadership. Tender-mindedness was expected to predict transformational leadership because it had a positive correlation with transformational leadership. Consequently, leaders who have transformational leadership are more tender-minded. Future research was regarded to determine whether transformational leadership and tender-mindedness are related. Multifactor leadership questionnaire, a robust measure of transformational leadership is associated with cost, thus it is a limitation to transformational leadership. The most important method of using agreeableness in predicting transformational leadership was to major on the personality traits of agreeableness but not the whole trait of agreeableness. This involves transforming personality traits into facets to understand deeply how transformational leadership must be predicted. Discussion of personality should always start in agricultural teaching leadership before the concept of leadership.
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