Demonstrate community assessments and apply the principles of epidemiology

Demonstrate community assessments and apply the principles of epidemiology

Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease is the most widespread within my community. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (2017), In every four people who die, one is due to heart disease. Also, the morbidity rate stands at one person in every three people.

Milio’s framework for prevention analysis

Milio offers a framework for disease prevention by refocusing the causes of health problems from the knowledge of the society members to the government policies. Through the understanding of the policies that need to be put in place to prevent certain unhealthy conditions, nurses can develop approaches to prevent such diseases. According to Milio, problems in health arise because of failure to have a balance between the resources that sustain health and community health needs. People have the objective to maximize the resources they value in society. Choice making therefore of what to take is a factor that brings social change that knowledge cannot affect. In that case, it is not possible to prevent unhealthy conditions through behavior change but by use of policies from the top leadership.

Cardiovascular disease case within the community can be understood as having maximized the resources that people value in the community. One cause of the disease is diabetes. The significant causes of diabetes are sugary drinks and foods which are only available to the rich (Wang et al., 2014). The list includes sugary beverages, rice, white bread, yogurt with fruit flavored, flavored coffee drinks and honey among others. Such substances add too much weight in the body leading to obesity which also a risk factor to heart disease. In the poor communities different from the one in the discussion, the disease is not prevalent, they don’t have a lot of sugary foods and drinks to maximize. Another cause of the heart disease is excessive use of alcohol and smoking all which are available in wealthy communities like the one in question (Crippa et al., 201) There is also lack of exercises leading to heart disease where the rich do not have time for physical activities with cars travel even short distances.

In such a situation, it is clear that people have knowledge about the results of their lifestyle, but they are not changing. Milio asserts that the best tool to use is policy from above that would help to control some of those lifestyles or use of the resources causing the disease. The government can, therefore, prevent heart disease, following Milio’s position through policies that can control the use of alcohol, smoking, the sale of beverages with too much sugar as well as how people use their private cars.

Nursing Diagnoses: Descriptive Epidemiology

Descriptive epidemiology aims to find out the severity and distribution of a health condition within a community. Through the mortality and disease morbidity, descriptive epidemiology can show the disease severity and what is making one group more prone compared to the other. The diagnosis applies in the heart disease to show that is severe through the morbidity and mortality framework where both are high as discussed in the first paragraph. In the case of cardiovascular disease, descriptive epidemiology can show why one group is prone compared to another because it results from social, an economic status which is not the same between communities (Ringen et al., 2014). Through the person factor framework, lifestyle is the cause of heart diseases where it affects people taking a specific type of food. Also, place framework in descriptive epidemiology is an essential tool to show what causes the disease because it is affecting people from the region that is rich in resources. Through place and person therefore, the diagnosis indicates that the cause of heart disease is the type of food substances and inactive behavior with people from areas that are well off economically.

National goals related to cardiovascular disease

According to the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP, 2014 c), the national targets to increase the general cardiovascular health and therefore, quality of life. It purposes to increase the health by preventing, detecting and treating heart attack and stroke risk factors. Another intervention to improve the health is through early diagnosis to manage the condition before it gets out of hand and cause death. Also, the office aims at preventing the repeat of events that lead to cardiovascular diseases.

One of the short term goals to address the disease is to increase adherence to treatment on the patients diagnosed with heart disease (ODPHP, 2017 b). Therapy helps to ensure that the disease does not get too high levels that may become difficult to control and therefore reduce deaths. It also increases the health outcomes of the patient. The intervention is to use mobile health to encourage and remind the patients to adhere to treatment. The mobile health includes encouraging and reminder information through SMS, mobile applications or direct calls.

Another short term goal is to increase the level of physical activities among children and adults (ODPHP, 2017 a). The intervention to help increase exercises is a community campaign with a variety of subsections like social support, health education as well as screening for risk factors. The third short term goal is to reduce weight amongst the community members (ODPHP, 2017 b). ODPHP recommends technological support to coach and offers to counsel as an intervention. It involves the use of video conferencing, computer program, internet and pagers among others to provide training and advice.



Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (2017). Heart Disease Facts. Retrieved from

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP) (2017 a). Physical Activity: Community-Wide Campaigns. Retrieved from

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP) (2017 b). Cardiovascular Disease: Mobile Health (mHealth) Interventions for Treatment Adherence among Newly Diagnosed Patients. Retrieved from

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP) (2014 c). Heart Disease and Stroke. Retrieved from





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Ringen, P. A., Engh, J. A., Birkenaes, A. B., Dieset, I., & Andreassen, O. A. (2014). Increased mortality in schizophrenia due to cardiovascular disease–a non-systematic review of epidemiology, possible causes, and interventions. Frontiers in psychiatry5, 137.

Crippa, A., Discacciati, A., Larsson, S. C., Wolk, A., & Orsini, N. (2014). Coffee consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis. American journal of epidemiology180(8), 763-775.

Estruch, R., Ros, E., Salas-Salvadó, J., Covas, M. I., Corella, D., Arós, F., … & Lamuela-Raventos, R. M. (2013). Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. New England Journal of Medicine368(14), 1279-1290.



Maurer, F. A., & Smith, C. M. (2012). Community/public health nursing practice: Health for families and populations. Elsevier Health Sciences.



Milio, N. (1976). A Framework for Prevention: Changing Health-Damaging To Health-Generating Life Patterns. American Journal of Public Health66(5), 435.