The thesis for this paper is that the measures taken by the developed countries as well as numerous NGOs towards the development of the disadvantaged communities should consider other aspects such as gender and race.
Development can be described in various ways. The most basic definition of development is that it is a positive transformation in the way of life of an individual (Lahiri‐Dutt, 2017). This transformation can mean that the social or economic status of the individual or an entire community has changed. Even though such an issue can seem extreme for a person living in the first world, the problem of development is deeply felt by individuals from less developed countries (Lahiri‐Dutt, 2017). The issue of development in society often relates to access to the most basic social amenities such as clean water, food, health services, and education. These services are offered by most western governments at no fee. However, in countries such as the ones in Africa, the situation is significantly different. Some nations in the region have attempted some of the government-sponsored services where the citizens do not have to pay (White, 2011). However, such programs are not capable to provide the same service for the entire population. Moreover, the resources are often depleted and the replacement of the items can take too long. Thus, the poor people from the less developed countries continue to suffer and most of them lose their lives from situations that can be easily resolved through programs and policies that promote economic developments in the affected regions (Lahiri‐Dutt, 2017).
While these measures aim to transform and change the lives of the people from such backgrounds, the same actions have to consider various aspects (Lahiri‐Dutt, 2017). In the third world countries, the traditional beliefs about gender roles and how men dominate over women is common. This factor implies that any development program that covers an entire population would likely benefit the men. This issue is legitimate since, in some of these nations, women are not even allowed to own property. Moreover, race plays a significant part in determining the actual benefits of such development programs (Heron,, 2007). In communities that are multiracial, the minority racial groups are likely to be neglected since most of the services that improve the lives of the people will focus on the race that makes up the majority of the population. Such complex issues about development are the aspects that will be discussed in this paper. Additionally, several recommendations and solutions will be offered to ensure that uneven access to the means for development is not influenced by race or gender.
Factors Affecting Economic Development of a Country
The factors that influence the economic development of any community are numerous. These conditions are directly related to economic development and also serve as secondary influences. The broad categorization of these factors is economic and on-economic. The figure below shows a chart that indicates these conditions.
Figure 1: Factors that Determine Economic Development in a Country (Heron, 2007).
Each of these factors will be briefly discussed to show their relevance to the development of a given country.
The economic determinants of development are capital formation, natural resources, a marketable surplus of grown products, the state of the global trade, and the economic model of the nation (Heron, 2007).
The formation of capital is crucial for any country that wants to develop. While most underdeveloped nations rely on foreign aid, such a move constantly makes the country to be dependent on the more advanced nations (Heron, 2007). Thus, the nation should ensure that it generates sufficient capital while investing most of the income. This factor guarantees that the nation is not in debt and it continuously increases its annual returns.
Natural resources are a strong determinant for rapid economic growth. These resources include fertile soils for agriculture, forests for timber, minerals, and petroleum. These items can make a country gain significant strides towards economic development. However, natural resources are not the only requirement for economic development (Heron, 2007). Several countries such as India and Japan have managed to improve the national economy without access to natural resources.
Surplus marketable agricultural products is another condition that affects the growth of a nation’s economy. Surplus marketable products imply the extra portion of the harvest after setting aside the food needed by the farmers (Heron, 2007). As more industries develop, the population tends to shift to more urban areas. This rise in the population tends to deplete the human resources in the rural areas that are needed to continue cultivating food crops. Thus, without sufficient agricultural products reaching the urban sectors, the scarcity of food will limit the economic expansion of the entire nation.
Conditions in global trade tend to affect the type of country and how it can effectively improve its economic growth. Developing countries are more likely to grow economically if they set up industries that are the primary processing facilities for the resources (Heron, 2007). This factor holds true since the cost of setting up such factories is cheaper in the region due to the closeness to the raw materials and the low cost for the labor needed. The developed countries can benefit more by setting up secondary and tertiary industries since they have the experience and skills.
The economic system of a country is a factor that determines the growth of the nation. The capitalist system has been able to work for most western nations (Heron, 2007). However, countries in Africa are yet to establish an effective economic model that can relate to their social and cultural demands.
The non-economic conditions for development include the available human resources, education, political systems, social structures, corruption, and the drive to develop. These issues commonly influence the rate by which a country develops.
The human resources that a country has determines the type of productivity. With skilled and educated individuals, a nation can easily increase the process of economic development (Heron, 2007). On the other hand, less qualified and even unhealthy citizens can derail this potential growth in the economy.
Education is key towards the general improvement of the lives of people in a country. The lack of education can make a nation to lack the resources needed to improve its economy (Heron, 2007). Additionally, the illiteracy levels can bring about issues like crime and drug abuse.
Political structures tend to influence how a country develops. The issue of colonialism affected most African and some of the Asian countries (Heron, 2007). The European colonists were exploiting these countries for the benefit of the home nation. However, when a country is able to control its resources through political freedom, its economic development can increase rapidly.
The social organization affects the will of the people to work towards a better economy while fully knowing they will benefit from the venture (Heron, 2007). In situations where such returns will be unevenly shared, the people will be less likely to work towards a better economy.
Corruption involves the use of resources and public funds for selfish gain. This practice is common in third-world countries (Heron, 2007). Many politicians and leaders misappropriate the resources needed to develop the country. Corruption is behavior which derails the economic development of a country.
Finally, for any country to actually develop, the people should have the desire for the same progress. This condition comes with enlightenment and education (Heron, 2007). Since human beings play the most important role in the progress of a nation, their desire to advance or develop is a critical factor towards economic growth.
While the factors that have been discussed ultimately affect the economic development of nations, some salient determinants also play a role in economic growth. These issues are mainly based on the gender of the individual. The issue of gender discrimination has been debated and researched for many years. The deduction from these reports as well as the general consensus is that when it comes to gender, men are provided more opportunities for economic growth compared to women. This situation tends to limit the female gender from realizing any significant growth in regard to their social and economic status. However, merely considering gender as a factor for economic development is not sufficient to fully analyze the depth of the issue. Thus, the issue of gender will be considered based on several factors. These secondary influences include geographic location, cultural and societal practices, and the level of empowerment for the female gender.
Geography determines the location of a country and the development of its people. Typically, most western nations are developed socially and economically. However, women continue to be downtrodden by a masculine-fueled system. This situation ensures that women are still treated as inferior despite the advancements made towards economic growth and social awareness. Moreover, this disparity is more evident in the professional sector where women tend to be paid less than men even though both are doing the same work. In developing nations such as African countries, the situation is worse. These countries are trying various approaches to try and improve their economy (Heron,, 2007). However, various factor continues to inhibit the progress of these strategies. Most of the issues include corruption, poor economic models, and discrimination, especially based on gender. Women in developing nations face an uphill task when it comes to improving their lives. The social concepts used in developing nations rely on traditions. Thus, most women are raised and taught how to be submissive to their male counterparts. This practice has been carried out through generations and it continues to be an influence in most parts of the continent (Heron,, 2007). This gender discrimination stems from the fact that genders have various roles to fill in society. The male gender is considered as dominant since they are the providers and protectors of a family setting.
On the other hand, females are the care providers and their roles should revolve around the homestead. These conditions ensure that women from developing countries do not have any other purpose other than being care providers. This issue lowers the chances of women to advance economically. The same problem expounds how gender affects the likelihood of economic growth in different countries.
The culture of any country is a significant factor in terms of economic development. The same culture tends to influence the chances of development (Bose, 2007). The culture of a specific country can determine how women are regarded when it comes to economic development. The issue of culture does not factor in the state of the country in regard to economic development for women. While the issue of gender is less significant in the already developed nations, the distinction is apparent. The culture in the developed worlds continues to treat women as inferior to men (Bose, 2007). This cultural practice ensures that women lack the opportunities and chances to develop their economic status freely. The women from the lesser developed nations such as the countries in Africa face a bigger challenge when it comes to economic growth. In these regions, women are not expected to own property or make money. This social behavior is based on the cultural patterns that are dominant in developing nations (Cook, 2008). These behaviors ensure that women are always dominated by men. Ideally, according to the culture, the male gender is the one that takes over every form of decision that affects the life of a family. The same gender is the one that is considered as the breadwinner for the society. These societal factors do not offer a chance for women, especially when it comes to economic growth (Cook, 2008).
Level of Empowerment
The level of empowerment implies the opportunities that are offered to the different genders to ensure that both sides can be able to enjoy equal growth and development. In the west, this situation offers a leveled field since both genders tend to receive the same type of education (Cook, 2008). However, in developing countries, access to various educational facilities tend to be biased against the female gender. The insufficient resources in the developing nations added with the exceedingly large families ensure that only a few children can receive a formal education. When these factors are considered, it is often the male children that are the ones who receive this formal education. Women are often neglected since society presumes that they can get married to an educated and wealthy individual (Cook, 2008). The situation creates a significant challenge for women. Thus, the lack of actual empowerment and endorsement by society affects the chances of women to achieve economic development.
Recommendation and Conclusion
The gender bias regarding economic growth is a serious issue that has faced the society for many years. Women have demonstrated the problem and several measures have been put in place. These adjustments have largely focused on ensuring the education of girls in developing countries. However, while these actions are positive towards the improvement of the economic growth for the same gender, the measures are insufficient. The female gender has experienced too much discrimination from society. Thus, they require more stringent measures that can ensure they enjoy the same opportunities as the male gender in terms of economic development regardless of the country where the women reside. Hence, governments need to enact programs and services that provide opportunities for women. The same programs should educate the male gender about discrimination to reduce any form of biased behavior or mistreatment against women in society. These measures will improve the nature of society by removing discriminative factors towards development that are influenced by gender.
Do you need high quality Custom Essay Writing Services?