Different Psychology Topics

Different Psychology Topics

Personality psychology can be identified as the behavior in which people vary from one another in terms of reasoning, feeling, and behavior.  The most captivating questions concerning personality attributes relate to issues involving change and firmness. For instance, is it true that kids who are shy will be shy when they are adults?Do the adolescence attributes differ from the adult’s personality traits? Does growing up to be adults help individuals in becoming able to manage negative emotions and enhance self-control? How is personality stability measured and which system can be used to account for personality change?

Considerable research has been carried out to ascertain if personality is unchanging or developing. The difference in individual behavior, thinking, and a feeling is what is termed as personality. Personality traits are assuredly consistent across time and age. (Fraley and Roberts 2005) Ideology adopted by the research on nature and development shows that personality characteristics are constructs which affect people’s behavior in meeting demands of the environment and arising development challenges. Personality traits relate to development constructs that illustrated alterations in life courses which is commonly in response to environmental mastery. Roberts, Caspi conducted a study, and Moffitt (2001) to issue a comprehensive continuity analysis and personality change of habits right from adolescence to adulthood.Immense changes in the environment distinguished the period of growth between 15 to 30. One thousand people were assessed men and women inclusive aged 18 and 26. Results indicated that there was a horizontal relationship in maturity to the level of individual changes, in that there were little changes in adolescence compared to the relatively immature during transformation to adulthood. Transition processes into young adulthood from adolescence, individuals become planful, energetic, decisive, persevering, and aspiring in the work-related endeavor. Personality changes noted in this transition process suggests a moment of growth and maturity as an adaptation suggestion to survive the environment.

As stated by Psychometric theory replica of personality development, personality character retains stability in adulthood and is not influenced by the environment. ( Conley, 1984).  The exemplary personality development theory in adulthood creates the five-factor personality theory. Character develops through childhood and reaches maturity at adulthood; therefore firm in cognitively intact individuals. (Roberts et al. 2006). Based on this theory personality character is controlled by nature or genetic elements rather than environmental impacts or experiences.  Roberts also emphasizes ecological role concerning personality development and traits and contexts transactions across the course of life. Roberts and Caspi (2001)established an alternative theory that stated that the process of identification could help explain patterns of continuity and change in personality traits. An individual’s identity is made clear and reinforced with age; therefore, aids in defining the rising continuity in personal characteristics in the course of life including adolescence. The theories agree with what Robert et al., (2001) which explains how personality development happens mainly because of experiences and expectations of a person to deal with the environment. Organismic model and contextual model are the two models dealing with personality development that Lewis presented.

The development idea underlies in the organismic model. Accretional model is an example of the organismic model, which postulates that particular skill, structure, exists in its adult form from the onset of development.

The transformation model is another typeof organismic model in which its main characteristic being consecutive behavior patterns is not able to reduce to previous forms. The transformational modelalso referred to as developmentstage models, which follows a specific direction and order of change as it relates to the environment. An example of a contextual model is an additive model which occurs in interactivity with the environment and exists with previous skills and abilities. The contextual model helps in understanding that behavior is developed to aid in one’s adaptations. To easily understand the organismic and contextual models, Lewis gave an illustration of a small child who was brought up by a depressed mother. The child noticeably indicated poor school adjustment, and it is likely that the child’s earlier adjustment that has affected later development. The organismic model would assume that the occurrence of events in the child’s more previous life produced a quality that changed behavior in the following years.

The studies indicate that personality seems to change rather than remain constant consistently. Various factors are responsible for individual personality change, and one of such factors is coping with the environment which is part of the maturation process. Personalities such as decisiveness and conscientiousness are seen to be portrayed during maturation








Henry Murray developed a system of needs as part of his theory of personality named personology. In his argument, everyone has a set of everyday basic needs, with separate differences on these needs hence creating personality uniqueness through different temperamental tendencies for every need. Therefore specific needs are more essential than others.

Murray goes on to state presses and presses worked together forming a disequilibrium condition thus driving the individual into engaging in a kind of behavior which minimizes tension.  Murray states that a study of personality should focus on looking into a person’s life over their lifespan in terms of their complex interactions and overall systems and not individual parts.

According to Murray,who agrees with Freud on the second principle of tension reduction, people respond to minimize personology and psychological tension, but it does not necessarily mean a state of no tension. Satisfaction is derived wholly when one acts to reduce it rather than in the achievement of a condition of freedom from all tensions. Furthermore, Murray argues that existence in a situation free of tension is distressing. Tension is created, so that satisfaction of reducing it is achieved, and therefore have a certain degree of tension to overcome is the ideal condition of human nature.

Freud’s argument on the reduction of tension and tensionless state is exemplified by the notion of death drive which is a complex issue. Fraud’s idea on our perception towards the tensionless state providesus with a path that is cohesive through different characteristics that are linked to death drive. A tensionless condition can be attained by an individual when he is released from ego pressures. In Fraud’s beyond the pleasure principle, he critically examines the meaning of death as being tensionless. Death is figuratively explained when it is discussed in that context; it is the death of the ego. The central theme of death as being tensionless will be used to describe several interpretations between neurotic envy and guilt and the death drive.Additionally, Freud emphasizes that everything that is related to death drive should be explained in dualistic theory.

Personality is intricate, and it consists of more than one component.