Citizens and emergent groups work to perform common goals during a response but do not have a formalized organization. In times of an emergency, citizens under no formalized organization join in the response. Local emergent groups also join in for the greater good of the victims.
A cascading disaster is an event that triggers additional hazards or impacts. An event that multiplies the effects of a combination of different hazards such an earthquake, which destroys infrastructure thus contaminating water and the air. This in turn causes diseases and disrupts the whole economy. The second tier of emergency response involves the coordination of the emergency management group. At this level, all available resources whether external or internal are put together to help manage the emergency
Dispatch centers handle initial calls from the public and direct responders to the incident scene. When an emergency occurs, the public always makes a 911 call. This goes to the dispatchers who then send in fire fighters and emergency responders.
The Professional Model management model emphasizes the horizontal relationships in which parties communicate across the department. This kind of communication is for coordination purposes between different departments for problem solving, just informing or departmental coordination. It permits a lateral or diagonal flow of information since no single agency or department can respond alone.
The traditional model of management emphasizes procedures that are necessary to protect responders and a hierarchy that relies on decisions made by a select few. It is bureaucratic in nature and beliefs in the centralization of powers. It also beliefs that it is advantageous to act under the hierarchy and with set procedures. Horizontal evacuation is the movement of people from low areas to higher areas in response to an incident. This ensures that the people are safe from the incident.
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