Validity is the state of being acceptable and logical to reality. Validity is critical towards the analysis of a procedure to determine if it meets the relevant standards. Validity is thus the central concept to test for worthiness.
Criterion validity refers to the degree of relationship co-existing between a measure and an outcome. Example of the criterion validity is the Grade point average (GPA) in college. This tests for the extent to which scores are predictive in college results. Face validity refers to the degree in which a test seems to measure a variable. Therefore, this type of validity is when an assessment appears to do what is expected of it (Kitagawa 2043). Example of face validity is, for example, a mathematical quiz is prepared to weigh if the students understand division calculations, and the people who see the test agree that it is indeed a good division test. The test indicates the face validity of the mathematical analysis. Thus examples of face validity include balance, running speed, and intelligence.
A distribution is skewed if one of the tails is longer than the other. A long tail in the positive direction is skewed positively while a longer tail in the negative direction is negatively skewed. The position of the mean, mode and median will determine whether a distribution is skewed positively or negatively(Adcock, Christopher and Nicola 1253). When the mean is to the left of the peak, the distribution will be negatively skewed as it measures values around the mean. In the negatively skewed distribution, the mean has always been to the left of the median. Therefore, in the positively skewed distribution, the mean will be to the right of the median. The mode maintains its position in both the positively skewed distribution and the negatively skewed distribution.
Adcock, Christopher, and Nicola Loperfido. “Skewed distributions in finance and actuarial science: a review.” The European Journal of Finance 21.13-14 (2015): 1253-1281.
Kitagawa, Toru. “A test for instrument validity.” Econometrica83.5 (2015): 2043-2063.
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