Disorders of the Veins and Arteries

Disease in a body will have a significant alteration in its functioning. Chronic Venous Insufficiency, deep venous thrombosis, and arterial thrombosis are some of the ailments with adverse effects on the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system if not timely discovered could lead to heart failure (Christiansen, Torp-Pedersen, Olesen, Gislason, Lamberts, Carlson, Lip, 2018, p. 94). Establishing the differences in terms of the pathophysiology of the three conditions, their risk factors will create an appropriate strategy aimed at evaluating how they can be diagnosed as well as the treatment that the medical practitioners should adopt in managing the conditions.

Pathophysiology of chronic venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis

Differences exist in terms of the alteration of the cardiovascular system caused by CVI and DVT. Chronic venous insufficiency entails blood pooling in the upper veins leading to a strain in the walls of the affected veins. The veins act as pathways for the flow of blood in body parts that are far from the heart. The condition occurs when there is clogging in the veins leading to failure of blood flow (Cohoon, 2017, p.1426). A number of alterations take place when the condition occurs. Failure of blood flow due to chronic venous insufficiency will lead to a high pressure of blood in the veins not affected to reduce venous hypertension. The pressure may lead to dermal changes, hyperpigmentation and eventual ulceration (Christiansen, Torp-Pedersen, Olesen, Gislason, Lamberts, Carlson, Lip, 2018, p. 94). Furthermore, the condition may lead to weakness in the walls of the veins that may extend to the other veins, a situation that may result in impaired blood return mechanism. Also, the blood pressure resulting from blocked veins enhances increased dilation of the valves, a situation that could overstretch the valve cusps with a subsequent result of valve failure.

On the other hand, deep venous thrombosis is the condition in which inner or lower veins block leading to disruption in blood flow. Its pathophysiology includes the resistance of the capillary walls to contract leading to a reduction in the blood current and lessening of the heartbeat.

Differences between venous thrombosis and arterial thrombosis

Venous and arterial thrombi are all conditions that affect the cardiovascular system. Though they involve, disruption in blood flow, they differ in terms of the place in which the conditions occur. Arterial thrombosis occurs when an artery is damaged followed by clogging of fatty deposits on the artery walls making them hard and narrow (Cohoon, 2017, p.1427). On the other hand, venous thrombosis occurs when blood or fatty deposits clog in the walls of the vein. The clogging hinders dilation and could also block blood from flowing. Secondly, venous thrombosis occurs when there is an abundance of red blood cells, fibrin, and platelets that clog into the veins hindering blood from flowing. Arterial thrombosis, on the other hand, occurs when there is a rupture in the arteries causing platelet aggregation with subsequent clot formation (Marini, He, Hobbs & Kaproth-Joslin, 2018, p.991). Lastly, treatment of venous thrombosis entails the prescription of drugs that increase the amount of protein to balance them with a high number of red blood cells. Treatment of Arterial thrombosis involve therapies that target platelet activation that will aid in blood clotting during an occurrence of artery rupture.

Pregnancy Factor

Various factors increase the risk of CVI and DVT. Pregnancy is among the factors that cause the occurrence of CVI and DVT. The enlarged uterus my hinder the pelvic venous outflow, high pressure in veins and subsequent rupture of the veins. An expectant woman with signs such as swelling, postpartum hemorrhage, and walking difficulties has a high likelihood of suffering from CVI and DVT (Cohoon, 2017, p.1426). A diagnosis involves non-invasive and non-ionizing imaging that helps to establish the presence of the suspected conditions and the possible effects caused (Marini, He, Hobbs & Kaproth-Joslin, 2018, p.978). The diagnosis is friendly to the fetus hence highly recommended. Treatment involves prescription of anticoagulation drugs upon discovery of the conditions.


Mind Map for Deep Venous Thrombosis






Increased venous pressure

Weakening of walls

Increased dilation


Elevation of limbs

Surgical ligation

Heparin therapy

Wearing of compression stockings




1-40% of adult female adults

1-17% of male adults

Clinical Presentation:

Venous stasis




Skin thickening


Drug abstinence

Physical exercise

Avoidance of prolonged standing or sitting

Weight control






Mind Map for Chronic Venous Insufficiency





Chronic venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis are conditions affecting the functioning of the cardiovascular organs, especially in adults. There occurrence if not established early could lead to other conditions such as ulcers, high blood pressure and failure of the whole blood vessels. Risk factors include age, gender, pregnancy, ethnicity, and behavior. Making positive lifestyle, doing physical exercises and abstaining from the use of drugs are the possible mechanisms for preventing the onset of the conditions.




Marini, T. J., He, K., Hobbs, S. K., & Kaproth-Joslin, K. (2018). A pictorial review of the pulmonary vasculature: From arteries to veins. Insights into Imaging, 9(6), 971-987. Doi:       10.1007/s13244-         018-0659-5

Cohoon, K. P. (2017). Vascular disorders in the Athlete: A call for vascular sports medicine clinics. Journal            of the American College of Cardiology, 70(11), 1426-1427.             doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2017.06.066

Christiansen, C. B., Torp-Pedersen, C., Olesen, J. B., Gislason, G., Lamberts, M., Carlson, N.,                 Lip, G. Y. H.          (2018). Risk of incident atrial fibrillation in patients presenting with a retinal artery or vein            occlusion: A nationwide cohort study. BMC Cardiovascular            Disorders, 18(1), 91-99. Doi: 10.1186/s12872-018-0825-1