Q1. Increased population has the ability of either bringing about development or hindering it. In developed countries, growth in population indicates an increase in manpower, which results to increased specialisation and innovation. This in turn results to increased GDP (wealth), which is an indication of economic development. In developing countries, population growth results to excess supply compared to the requirement. This makes resources such as land limited since they are inelastic in nature. Labour supply also tends to outstrip labour demand hence leading to exploitation of employees by way of low wages.
- Yes. “Quality” education is a form of human capital that instils cognitive skills in a population. This leads to various levels of innovation that result to technological advancements, which in turn spearheads economic growth.
- Most LDC’s education systems tend to reduce poverty and inequality. Inequality is reduced by the fact that these systems are adopted from developed countries which strive to enhance equality. Poverty is reduced in that students end up being employed based on their level of employment hence having sources of income which helps improve their living standards.
- Yes, education stimulates rural-urban migration. This is because as people get educated, they want to move to urban areas so that they can have a chance of attaining white-collar jobs.
- Yes. As women get educated, the prospect of more income increases. The opportunity cost of their time will increase as a result. They prefer using most of their time working rather than taking care of children hence resulting to reduced fertility.
- No. This is because most education systems only teach students on how to be employed after completion. As a result, they move to urban areas in search of white-collar jobs. This manpower is not used in rural development since they tend to think there are no opportunities that suit their skills there.
- Among the causes are wage-differentials between LDCs and DCs. Developed countries tend to have higher wages. Developed countries are also believed to have better working conditions, and other individuals are driven by the notion of finding “greener pastures”.
Internal brain drain occurs when individuals are not employed in their areas of expertise or when individuals move from the public sector to a private sector. An example is when an individual leaves a government agency to starts working with the UN or International NGOs.
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