Education Theories

Part 1

Causes of Dissonance Instability in Human Behavior

Instability and dissonance in human behavior are instigated by the presentation of new information that contradicts or challenges one’s attitude and perception. Typically, a person tends to maintain a consistent cognition, that is, beliefs and opinions. If one’s cognition is challenged by information or a belief that contradicts with his own, it creates instability or mental discomfort and dissonance in his behavior and attitude which then triggers a change in one’s belief and attitude to minimize the discomfort and restore balance.

How Disturbances in Equilibrium Generate Opportunities for Learning

When one’s cognition is challenged by different information or belief, they will tend to eliminate the disturbance to restore the consistency of mental state. As they tend to adjust to the new conditions, new information or new beliefs, and they try to accommodate the new requirements by relating it to their original cognition. This endeavor gives them an opportunity to learn to appreciate and accommodate the new conditions in their behaviors.

How A Person Reconciles the Knowledge that Subjective Reality Results from Constructivism a When Most Trainers and Teachers Deliver Fixed, Prescribed Information

Since teachers and instructors usually use one fixed method of delivery and convey prescribed, limited information, it limits the idea of constructivism. Nevertheless, students have a choice to relate the information taught by their teachers and the information they have gathered from their research and reconcile such ideas of constructivism through critical analysis.



The Possibility of the Accomplishment of Both Approaches in Class

Both learning methods can be achieved in class whereby the teachers teach what is in the syllabus and then give the students the chance to relate the information to their lives.

How Constructivism Is Used to Design a General Science Class for Eighth Graders

Constructivism is a crucial method of learning since it enables students to relate knowledge with their life experiences (Pagliaro, 2017). Besides, it can be incorporated into a science class since it enhances interactions and creates a platform for sharing ideas concerning the topic of discussion. It also encourages the students to get extra information from other primary sources.

Part 2

Teachers and Designers Creation of Discomfort in Young Students in the Encouragement of the Process of Equilibration According to Piaget

I think designers and teachers should encourage development process through equilibration to enhance adjustment of their thinking to accommodate the incoming information or transforming the incoming information to suit it within their current thinking (Pagliaro, 2016). At first, the students are in a state of equilibrium as they are comfortable with their existing knowledge. However, students may experience discomfort due to the cognitive conflict created by the incoming information. The students should, therefore, adjust to the incoming information to achieve a new state of equilibrium.

Methods Incorporated By Teachers and Instructional Designers in Courses to Support Equilibration

Most instructors consider using hybrid instruction formats to blend learning face-to-face classroom instruction. As a result, the instructor needs to understand the connection between learning science and high quality learning through the integration of learned information and critical analysis using life experiences. They should thus give students the opportunity to explore things and learn through discovery to achieve a balance between active guiding and students’ discovery.  Teachers should motivate the students by giving tasks that are tailored to their level of development. They should also use hybrid teaching styles include visualization, inquiry-based instructional learning, behavior management, cooperative learning, and differentiation.

How Instructors Help the Young Students to Achieve Accommodation

Instructors can help young students achieve accommodation through various teaching styles which include personalized learning, encouraging self-direction, allowing students to meet ideas over and over from a range of perspectives and use a diverse teaching strategy to meet every student at their levels of cognitive abilities.

The Relationship between the Theory of Equilibration and Malcolm Knowles’ Adult Learning Theory

The theory of andragogy attempts to develop a theory for adult learning (Knowles, 2015). It involves developmental learning through the acquisition of new information which relates to the concept of equilibration. It emphasizes the aspects of self-direction and decision making which are the aspects involved in equilibration.

Theoretical Similarities that Are Considered In the Design of Adults’ Instruction

These theories of learning guide the instruction designer on what to consider in designing the instruction for adults to facilitate the learning process. Some of the considerations include the creation of relevant courses with perceived learners’ needs, devising instructional strategies that are in line with the real learning contexts, choosing a technology that supports the learning strategies, and planning an instructional strategy that is relevant for digital-age and also on-the-go learners.

Relationship of Both Theories to Constructivism

Both theories are related to constructivism due to various reasons. First, both theories perceive learning as an active process and not a passive process. Besides, both theories emphasize the need for young and adults to be given an opportunity for self-exploration and discovery of new knowledge. Also, both theories of learning enhance adaptive and interactive skills for a meaningful acquisition of language which is an aspect covered in the concept of constructivism.




Knowles, M. (2015). The Adult Learning Theory.

Pagliaro, M. M. (2016). A Blueprint for Preparing Teachers: Producing the Best Educators for Our Children. Rowman & Littlefield.

Pagliaro, M. M. (2017). Questioning, Instructional Strategies, and Classroom Management: A Compendium of Criteria for Best Teaching Practices. Rowman & Littlefield.