Ethics can be used to showcase to several meanings. At times it is regarded as a set of standards that determine what is right or wrong as determined by a group of people with the intention of imposing it on the people of certain groups as a way of regulating and establishing limits upon their behavior. As a philosophical discipline, it usually includes the study of guidelines and values and the justification of these guidelines and values (Dickens, 2013). The paper contains a brief history of ethics and an explanation of four categories of ethical theories; normative, relativist, theoretical and Universalist.
The reflection on ethics code commenced with the Greek Sophists during the 15th century BCE. Protagoras was among the earliest individuals that defended moral relativism at the expense of denying the existence of objective moral truth. He established that “whatever the city establishes as just, is just for that city as long as it judges so”, in Plato’s Theaetetus (Dickens, 2013). Later, individuals such as Callicles established a contrast between laws of nature and moral laws as human conventions. Such notions seemed to provide fuel for Plato’s, Aristotle’s and Socrates’ philosophical thought. Much of Socrates’ work revolved around examining people’s virtues. He believed that presence of virtu
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