Evaluating, comparing and contrasting three theories of communication

Evaluating, comparing and contrasting three theories of communication


This paper aims at evaluating, comparing and contrasting three theories of communication as seen in the perspective of Short Message Service (SMS). It is a technology that simplified mobile data transfer and involves the sending and receiving of text messages between phones and digital lines.

Innovation theories

Innovation theories, on the other hand, have been developed to offer explanations to why, how and the rate at which new technologies are discovered.They analyze a given technology in a company to establish whether the technology will be a success or a failure in the future years. Innovation is crucial especially in business companies; hence, many have designed programs which see them accommodate the ideas of all the individuals. They include;

  • Disruptive Innovation – Christenson
  • Dominant Model – Utterbeck
  • IT Strategically – Carr
  • Diffusion of Innovations – Everett Rogers
  • Control Revolution – Beniger
  • EATPUT – Debons

Technology: Short Messaging Service (SMS)

SMS is a messaging service that has been included in both Internet and mobile systems. Through the use of communication protocols that are standardized, telephones are to communicate using short text messages. This technology was first used in 1992.Other technologies can be used together with SMS to enable text-to-voice communication. By 2010, more than 80% of all mobile owners were using SMS to pass their message.The main reason for its wide acceptance is its affordability. All mobiles with Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) support this technology. The third generation wireless network, which has been improved to fourth and fifth generations, also utilizes SMS technology. The SMS text messages can also be shared through Instant Message (IM) programs, web-based applications, and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) programs such as IMO and Skype. The communication is triggered when an SMS message is sent from a communication device to the Short Message Service Center (SMSC).The function in this center is to contact the device network providers to establish the location from which the message was sent from. The message is converted into a data packet of small size and sent to the required destination. All the messages sent a pass through this process before reaching their recipient.

SMS technology makes communication easy using different ways. The first one is through quick connection which involves updates between friends and families. The second one is alerts which may include voicemails, appointments, sales inquiries, and meetings. Enhanced messaging service allows the user to set ringtone and pictures and be able to transfer simple and light media.The first SMS message was sent through the GSM network of Vodafone devices back in 1992, and the technology has since spread to other parts of the world.

The amount of data held by an SMS is highly limited just as its name suggests. The size of an SMS has been set at 140 bytes which translates into 160 characters for 7-bit encoding format mostly for Latin characters such as that of English language. It can also convert into 70 characters where 16-bit encoding format is used chiefly for non-Latin characters such as those of Chinese literature. It supports many different languages across the world. However, it has been found to work best with those that support Unicode such as Chinese, Arabic, Korean and Japanese. Apart from texts, SMS technology has been improved in recent years to promote the sharing of other media such as images, logos, ringtones, animations, wallpapers, and business cards. It has an advantage over other applications such as Java and WAP, which are not supported by all communication devices.

Theories of Innovation

Diffusion of Innovations

This theory analyzes how ideas move from one person to another within a given group. It disputes the two-step theory and argues that new ideas, which are now an innovation, after spreading in the group, it will be adopted by all the members. The group leader has a significant influence on the members’ behaviors. In diffusion of innovation theory, there are change agents who act as advisors to the leader whether to adopt or do away with the suggested innovation.The acceptance of innovation is primarily dueto interactions between people.The diffusion of new ideas within a group is dependent on four factors, which include the actual change, the communication channel through which it is spread, social system, as well as time. There are also other factors that influence innovation adoption process and include relative advantage, complexity, observability, compatibility, and triability.

According to these factors, SMS technology can be classified as a success.Its relative advantages include low cost to afford and use as compared to calling and emailing. It is also short and easy to draft and send as compared to long emails.It is compatible with all communication devices and can be used in mobile phones and the Internet. SMS are less complex as compared to other forms of communication such as emails as they do not need logging in. It can be used by all type of users as it only involves drafting a message and sending. In terms of triability, it is simple to include several extensions in the application such as media sharing and video calling. Finally, according to obervability factor, SMS technology has spread across the world and has even developed into the primary form of communication.

Control Revolution

Control revolution theory involves different changes within technology that happens very fast through which information is gathered and analyzed and it differs from the previous model. The processed information helps in formal decision-making processes. In this theory, there are different innovations that have been introduced in the world which many people in society do not have the capability to handle. In the SMS technology, this theory shows new innovations that can make it a better technology. This has already been shown through added features such as video calling and sharing of images in MMS. The Multi-Media Service technology has been introduced to add these features to SMS. Innovations have also seen the technology spread from mobile network to the Internet network. This is evident with the development of applications such as Skype and Telegram. However, the communication over the Internet network has to be controlled as it may result in the loss of private information through hacking by attackers.


This theory has been largely used in analyzing information systems. It was used in the development of information systems which helped in remotely managing islands. It has six major components through which it evaluates innovations and the ability of executing new ideas. Event lists the activities that are relevant to the innovation and how they will be represented in the system. Acquisition component ensures that the system captures only information that is in accordance with the event. Transmission takes place between the components which shows how proceeding innovations communicate to each other. Processing handles the data by ordering, analyzing and storing them.This eases the process of comparing previous ideas to new innovations. The interpretation of the data processing is done in the utilization component. The final component is transfer where actions take place.

When applied to SMS technology, this theory monitors and analyzes the development of the application. In the event phase, technology broke into the market as a Short Messaging Service (SMS), which many accepted and widely adopted. They acquired the innovation and quickly started to use it as the primary form of communication. In the transmission phase, the texts sent in SMS technology reach any intended part that is connected to mobile or Internet network. The texts move at a high speed and it is a cheaper option for communication. The technology can be utilized in mass communication where same text is sent to a large number of people. Finally, this mass communication can be applied in marketing in business companies, unlike the Control Revolution concept.


In conclusion, innovation is an essential aspect of technology as it brings new ideas through creativity. This provides an opportunity for improvement of quality in already existing technologies in organizations and the world at large.Establishments have to embrace innovation as it is vital in the dynamic and ever-changing environment. Without innovation, no new products and services may be developed and, therefore, the customers suffer a lot. It is recommended that innovation should be practiced in both technical, process and administrative parts of the association. Technologies such as SMS have been improved through innovation and new ideas.

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