To be able to study the theme in depth, the analysis of boundaries will be broken down into a few parts, the boundaries of gender and sexuality, the boundaries of social classes and living standards and the boundaries in physical and visual psychology. These are boundaries that humans always identify with in our everyday lives. Three pieces of individual artwork created in the recent 20 years and the artist’s backgrounds and experience will be evaluated to gain unique insights on the topic. The artworks are presented in different forms including photography and installation. The featured artworks and their artists are “It’s all about ME, Not You” by Greer Lankton, “Infinity Mirrored Room” by Yayoi Kusama and “Unequal Scenes” by Johnny Miller. After analyzing and understanding the individual message and meaning of the artworks, it will be put in comparison with certain boundaries we have in within the current society. Then a discussion of this paper is to examine the value and origin of such boundaries, putting it with the meaning of artworks, deciding whether such boundaries are necessary and what importance it may have.
Greer Lankton is one of the artists who has broken the boundaries. Her existence is a reality that was not viewed as normal or within the female and male genre that some people assume. Her art itself were boundary breaking as well, informing the world of a dark side that some may not have experience. She brings up the reflection of what boundaries may be needed for as not everyone is the same. If we were to say boundaries are there because we were born either being female or male, well how do we explain her situation where she has been going through problems almost since birth? Some may also say the two genders are the settings for romance events but Greer Lankton shared a relationship with her husband where she was treasured and was accepted fully, she had a relationship which some may not approve but ended being stronger than normal relationships.
Greer Lankton is an American transgender artist. She was born in 1958 and went by with the name Greg at first. Her family background was Presbyterian, and her father was even a minister from Holly, Ill. But despite her seemingly steady and safe family, she went through certain unfortunate events. Her first visit to the therapy was at 18 months, since the age of 5, she was sexually abused and raped by her grandfather. According to people who knew her personally and met her, they were told that her mother was part of her haunted experience as she was also one who sexually abused Lankton. Lankton also started drugs at 12 and at 19 she was even diagnosed as schizophrenic. (Lankton, 1996) Luckily with her strong soul, she can become an inspiring artist who is looked upon by many people. Her queer experience put her in the spotlight throughout her artistic career, making her receiving criticism and judgment all along. A lot of people disapprove of her art, but as time goes by, more of them start to realize the character she puts into her art. The artworks of her were labeled to be weird and haunted. (Durbin & Monroe, 2015)
Her works were mesmerizing as she put depth in each doll she made. Different from what people may have expected from a “doll,” it was not something like Barbie Dolls where the doll’s figures and story were admired. The dolls created by Greer Lankton “are often anatomically unsettled, overweight or too thin, tattered or shredded open……..Some dolls gained or lost weight, others had face-lifts or sex changes, and some were chopped into pieces and left as torsos or heads” (Durbin, 2015). The message that Lankton wanted to convey was never aimed to inspire others. She was exploring and expressing her characters through her art, but through her eyes, audiences can gain a rare insight of the inner world of a transgender and an individual with different life events.
Unfortunately, this artist had died young. She was found dead in her Chicago Apartment on November 18, 1996. (Monroe, 2015). Apparently, there were meaningful actions that she made before her death. She moved to her home where she lived when she was a child, and which she suffered because of her family. She also did not include “Sissy,” the doll that represents her most from the last art show she had. The doll left her last message, the doll was repainted and had no emotion, and the only expression left was the red heart painted on her body with the words “Love Me.” Greer’s birth and life experience were unique, and she made her death a meaningful one as well.
2.2 “It’s all about ME, Not You”
“It’s all about ME, Not You” was an installation artwork that Greer Lankton finished and showed to the world before her death. This installation was the last piece of Greer Lankton and also the only large-scale installation artwork that she has in her portfolio. “It is clad in white siding with old windows and an Astroturf patio littered with fall leaves. Ruby slippers, at the end of legs in striped stockings, emerge from under the house. Inside, Greer Lankton recreated the Chicago apartment where she lived and worked.” (Mattress, 1996) This was the introduction description of “It’s all about ME, Not You” of Greer Lankton. Inside the apartment, the walls were covered in deep colors, and stars were used to decorate the ceiling. The collections of dolls that Lankton made were displayed within the room. Raggedy Anns, which is an anorexic doll was one of the members, the doll was a drug addict and was placed in bed which had a lot of pill bottles around her. This doll reminded a lot of Greer Lankton herself, being a drug addict and anorexic was two issues that Greer Lankton went through in her lifetime. The dolls that she created showed her obsession with her body, whether about the positive and negatives, it would always be on her mind, and she has accepted it in a way, that is why she created the dolls according to her image. Even after she broke the boundaries of becoming transgender, she was coping with challenges the same way as any other person; the only difference may be how much more she reflected on her body.
Lankton also created personal shrines for people who she viewed as an idol, for example, Patti Smith and Candy Darling. Patti Smith is an American poet, visual artist and also a singer- songwriter. Her music genre was pop and rock and she became iconic in 1975 with her album ‘Horses’. Not only did her music became popular she also has a particular liking in music, and that is to write songs about transgender. (The Guardian, 2005) As for Candy Darling, she was an American actress. She was a transgender person as well, which creates a similarity with Greer Lankton, other similarities they share would be the criticism and hardship they faced. Candy Darling was trying to steady her career, and it became more of a challenge when she was frozen out by Andy Warhol. Candy Darling may have seemed like a lost soul at most of the time, but in the end, she still went for what she wanted. She may have died young, but even before her death, she posed for herself in the photo ‘Deathbed’. (Gleiberman, 2011)These two idols were clearly influential towards Greer Lankton, and that is why in her last piece of artwork, she included them as part of it.
The environment of the installation art piece spoke a lot. With the dark colors of the apartment, it showed sadness and a sort of negative emotion Greer Lankton had, but the stars on the ceiling meant something different, it seemed to be hope or light within her world. The figures in the apartment were unique on their own, they may not have the most appealing look or way of being created, but everyone was meaningful inspiring, just as Holland Cotter’s description “art of a superbly disciplined and unusually distressing beauty.”(Mattress Factory), within the article that Holland Cotter, he also rated the show work of Greer Lankton being “beyond exquisite” and also commented her influence on morality reflection. (Cotter, 2014) Even until this day, the artwork never fails spread it’s influence. With the emotion and story behind such beautiful artworks, it also proves the existence of those that may be beyond the “boundaries” that some of us have set. The apartment that Greer Lankton created left part of her soul with us making it impossible to ignore her existence. The last artwork “It’s all about ME, Not You” of Greer Lankton was a combination of her life experience as a transgender, and her life was a reflection of what it meant to ‘break the boundaries.’
Yayoi Kusama was born in Matsumoto City of Japan on March 22, 1929. She was no ordinary artist since young. Shockingly, she started to produce art at age ten. Not just any easy type of art that children would practice and use to have fun. She started her type of style of art using polka dots and nets to create pieces of artworks. She used materials such as watercolor, pastels, and oils at that point. During 1957, she went to the United States to further explore her art, during the years in the United States; she worked on another form of art such as large paintings, soft sculpture and started doing environmental sculptures with mirrors and lights. (Yayoi-Kusama)During the 1960s, she participated in even more types of events; the events included body painting festival, anti-war events, and fashion shows. She started to bring her art to various circles of people. Her film “Kusama’s Self- Obliteration” which she produced in 1968, won several awards including a prize at the Fourth International Experimental Film Competition in Belgium and Second Maryland Film Festival. Also, it attained a second place at the Ann Arbor Film Festival. Besides having shown and exhibited in the US, her art was also shown in Europe where she held shows. She was seen as an important member of having new and unusual ideas at that time, raising attention from people just like Andy Warhol, Claes Oldenburg, and Eva Hesse. (art net) Even up until now, the members under this label still leaves an impression and influence in the art field or contributes in new trends and reflection.
After having a certain reputation in the western countries, Yayoi Kusama returned to Japan in 1973. Surprisingly to a lot of expectation, she did not continue to pursue her art career; she stayed in a mental hospital and her reputation died down for a while. It was not until later on when she attended the 45th Venice Biennale that she started gaining more recognition. In 1994, she started with her creation of open-air sculptures and produced for a lot of center and places worldwide. In 1996, she mainly showed her art in New York. And ever since her comeback for her art career, she has not stopped since then and been leaving her footsteps all around the world and art events.
Regarding her artworks and means, she has noted the use of polka dots and patterns as a way to explore infinity and also to experiment and to deny certain existence. The exploration of boundaries was specifically included in her later works the “Infinity Mirrored Room” and “Fireflies on the Water.” Using the visual delusion of the artwork and compare it with the actual physical features of the artwork was a way to experience such relations of boundaries.
The “Infinity Mirrored Room” is one of the most signifying works of Yayoi Kusama. Currently, the artwork is being exhibited in The Broad, a new contemporary art museum founded by philanthropists Eli and Edythe Broad on Grand Avenue in downtown Los Angeles. (The Broad) The origin of the artwork started off with the combination of Yayoi Kusama’s traditional way of creating art- with patterns and dots. Even though it is LED lights that are used to create the infinity scene of the “Infinity Mirrored Room,” Kusama was still using dots and colors to form the background view of the art. Mirrors were used to create an unlimited reflection view of galaxy sky which was created using the lights. This is a perfect example of what Kusama meant by exploration of boundaries and denying certain mindset some people had in their point of view. The physical boundaries that we have set as human beings were always measuring our spaces through measurements and then sticking with the numbers, but Yayoi Kusama creates an area where these boundaries are not suitable anymore. She successfully made a room where it seems to have out the galaxy in there, no ending and infinity seems to exist in the room. This also reminds us of how some interior designers are looking for ways to present the client’s home and make it seem to have more space. What makes Yayoi Kusama’s artwork different with the interior designing methods is how she can go all out to express her art and experiment with boundaries.
For further exploration of physical boundaries and visual mental boundaries, certain common knowledge can be used. For example, from doctors and other professional, it is clear that small or tight space may put people in uneasiness or tense up. But this does not apply to Yayoi Kusama’s artwork. According to William Grimes- one of the writers of The New York Times, “Calming, ethereal and meditative, all at the same time” was the opinions he had on the “Infinity Mirrored Room.” By using the galaxy as part of the installation art piece, Yayoi Kusama had her audiences reflect upon their lives, using a room that is sized as a large walk-in closet. If anyone was to hear of someone speaking about feeling all those calmness and reflection about their life they made in a room (size of a walk-in closet), they might have labeled the man to be crazy because they do not believe in him. Yayoi Kusama does not feel bad, because as soon as someone comes to experience her art work, believing in her will be the only action left.
This artwork is an inspiring piece not only for artists but general audiences. It opens up a perspective similar to Yayoi Kusama where more possibilities may exist and how they may break through the boundaries as well. Getting rid and trying to defy the boundaries that we once believed in and maybe we will find something like Kusama’s artwork where it brings infinity and a new belief of how things may be. In Yayoi Kusama’s eyes, boundaries are for limiting a certain viewpoint and to cut off possibilities, and by understanding that and attempting to not follow the traditional boundary views, Yayoi Kusama created the magnificent “Infinity Mirrored Room.”
Johnny Miller is a man that does not have a lot of stories or shocking life events. But one thing that makes him a respectable artist is his courage for stepping out and speak for racism and class inequality. His most famous work would be the “Unequal Scenes” series that has been working on recently. The series was shot in South Africa. This photographer has become a hero in a lot of people’s eyes as she successfully brought up the discussion along with imageries that hit straight to the point and simply expressed the unfair situation through series of photos.
One characteristic that made the discussion, even more, heat up was the skin of Johnny Miller. It seems unrelated to the topic of unequal economic boundaries in society, but Johnny Miller has been criticized to not understand certain culture and need for boundaries because he is “white.” More groups have been involved in the discussion as well because of his identity; he is being viewed as a rare being by stereotypes who have set a lot of boundaries on how “white” and “black” are. With a lot of people saying and explaining the need for boundaries demonstrated in Johnny Miller’s artwork, people are starting to compare such opinions with an actual image of the situation. Johnny Miller is in the stage of becoming an influential icon within today’s society; he is one that challenges certain boundaries that have been lasting for years.
After gaining recognition and realizing his influence through “Unequal Scenes” shot in South Africa, he has also stated that he will be going around the world to countries and places who will have similar issues and living settings. (Miller, 2016) His actions are exactly like new blood being poured down the stream of boundaries, and it is offering a chance to rethink boundaries that we have set on human classes, living standards and environment of a community. He is someone who has broken certain boundaries as well. Some boundaries set up by racist were that the “white” are better than the “black”, and for him to realize the help needed for South Africa, excludes him from such boundaries. However, some people are still stuck in such viewpoints and therefore criticizing the existence of both Johnny Miller and his art series “Unequal Scenes.”
The “Unequal Scenes” series are scenes of inequality captured by Cape Town based photographer Johnny Miller. The new project of Johnny Miller consists of scenes from the Republic of South Africa to be precise. The images and videos were not simply showing the “rich and poor” comparison; it may seem like that at the beginning, but if we read any of Miller’s explanation, we realize a deeper topic that he is trying to represent to us. “Designed with separation in mind,” “many of these barriers, and the inequalities they have endangered, still exist.” are what Johnny Miller has to say regarding the scenes that he has captured and made into strong pieces of evidence.
The series of photographs and videos brought the extreme division of the poor and the strong vision to public and also striking up heated discussions of related issues. (Cade, 2016) The divisions of the public are in three groups, one supporting the need of correction and to raise even more awareness towards poverty and also factors that cause poverty. The second one against the viewpoints of Johnny Miller merely just pointing out the need to classifications as a result of what they have worked for and deserve because of their wealth. Lastly, there are ones who do not comment on the issue and topics of social class/ living boundaries we have currently.
After looking into evidence, the saying of Miller’s “inequality they (Apartheid policies) endangered, still exist.” sadly, is true. The main cause of poverty and economic challenge of poor citizens in the South Africa was the isolation that was set up upon them. That was another boundary that was made. (Laverty, 2007) Ironically, such boundaries were following the boundaries of “white” class and lower class that was believed in. Now the “Unequal Scene” are merely a reminder of what has happened and what classification boundaries have done to people.
Within the photography and videos, another type of boundary shown is the living boundaries that people have set up to determine someone as well. How are we able to distinguish the poor side and the rich side within the “Unequal Scenes”? The answer to this is boundaries as well. Back in the primitive living period, we had the same structure of houses as every living action was done in the same room, but now, we divide human living space into various functional rooms. Most basic room settings would be a kitchen, bedroom, washroom, living, etc. The bigger the house is and more functional rooms is has, the better the house may be and the richer the owner may be. The layout of architectural planning has to do with the boundaries setting as well, on the rich side of the “Unequal Scenes,” we see how each resident is a part of the mapping of the area and is in a well-organized community. One most obvious clue of the rich being seen as the rich is their houses being a double of the poor’s and with cars in front of the house. The boundaries that human has set to classify lives of people have created inequality and also encouraged shallow actions such as judging based on the appearance. Therefore, the reflection the “Unequal Scene” brings is not solely to bring attention to the rich and poor. It brings reflection on flaws that boundaries may have, and by having boundaries, worse can come out of it, it is just that not all of us realize that.
The background of artists and the meaning behind of their work are all one of a kind, which is what we may call boundary breaking. When seeing something new and positive, we might start to wonder where such things came from. After breaking down their personal profile and creation, it has come down to one similarity that it may be because the authors are looking beyond the boundaries we have.
Greer Lankton is an outstanding candidate to represent boundary breaking discussions. Her whole life experience would be viewed as boundary breaking in a lot of eyes. Being born in a family where her family did not necessarily play supportive characters, and where transgender surgery was not fully her will as well. Her life can be said to be fortunate and unfortunate. It was unfortunate for her to have gone through the twisted events and suffering in her life, but fortunate as she had hope and sense of love. For the boundaries we have towards transgender and sexuality, it is said that transgender people are unacceptable and should never have existed. But Greer Lankton became a transgender person due to many factors including her family. These were natural events that happened throughout the course of her life. Her art presented her strong character as a human where she had a deep understanding herself and accepted herself wholly. Even when she expressed regret for being transgender, she still continued what was meaningful to her and left a presence which was inspiring to others. As for the boundary towards sexuality declining the existence of gay love or lesbian love or other types of love rather than straight sexuality, it has a lot of questions in it as well. Looking at the romance that Greer Lankton and Andy Monroe shared, was there anything wrong in it? Probably not, with Greer Lankton being someone who has a lot of issues and hardships, her husband was one that was beside her and stood beside her. Even after the death of Greer Lankton, her husband was one that continues to spread her art to the world. The love they shared was strong and beautiful, not what the boundaries defined to be gross or immoral. The boundaries were set because of some people’s disbelief and disapproval of such sexuality that they could not accept. Being unable to accept other actions of people that do not harm or affect others is just simply being narrow-minded, the boundaries were never meant to be imposed. The origin of boundaries towards transgender and different sexuality was because of the right and wrong judgment people started to develop, and with more people not being transgender and straight, they made boundaries that did not approve of transgender and other types of sexuality.
The boundaries that Yayoi Kusama broke were boundaries that have existed for years and years since the start of humanity. We were always obsessed with limitations that we could see and feel, focusing on reality. But Yayoi Kusama created a space where we experienced a different perspective that exists in this realistic world we live in. Within her statement, she stated that she was always aiming to explore possibilities and also to defy certain standard or boundaries that have already been set. The “Infinity Mirrored Room” definitely proved her right. By ignoring and overseeing certain boundaries, a better creation resulted. The point she brings towards the discussion is that, if we choose to oversee certain boundaries, will we result in better achievements as well? For example, physics set a lot of limitations that we have, but will we be able to achieve outstanding results by thinking from another perspective or constantly looking out for different experiment options. Just how Yayoi Kusama created an “infinity” space, but it was not necessarily physically infinitive, it was visual mentally infinitive. But regardless, it broke the boundaries of “space being the bigger, the better.” Yayoi Kusama started with the simplicity of dots and patterns, is was also an unusual move of hers. With the world being more advanced and forward, complexity is always what we seek for nowadays. Yayoi Kusama’s art method is boundary breaking in the art field, by using simplicity type of methods, she creates work that is highly valued and out of the world. If anyone were to think more deeply or her style of creation and her point of views, we might see how her life was defying certain standards we unintentionally go along with in our daily lives.
In the boundaries of social classes and living environment, John Miller has brought a chain reflection within the public, not simply addressing an issue, but also bringing up all the related matters. With him mentioning the poor and rich side of South Africa in his art series “Unequal Scenes,” the first wave of discussion was on the side of supporting the poor and side of supporting the rich. The poor says that inequality is a cause of the forever poverty while the rich would say that their wealth represents their qualification for living another lifestyle that is different from the poor. Later on, the discussion of Apartheid policies was brought up as to prove that the boundaries that were once enforced, led to the poverty that people suffer from. It may be true that the rich holds the wealth which opens up a luxurious lifestyle and allows them to afford possession they like, but that does not erase the fact that the environment that they were born in and the opportunity they were given was never the same as the ones in poverty. The advanced starting line the rich had was all consequences of inequality. It is true that the rich worked for their wealth, but how many of them had to suffer? And where does their wealth come from? Because of the boundaries of classes that is stuck to the riches minds, they are not willing to help out the poor or sacrifice part of their wealth to balance out the inequality. Just like how they are unable to trespass to the other side or break down the walls between them and the other side in the scenarios captured in “Inequality Scenes.”
As for the architectural design related to boundaries of living, the mental reliance that some of us have towards the design of our home has gone too far, some people view designs of having different functional rooms as an act to retain our dignity. (Ballinger, 2010) That is similar to why the rich are not willing to let go of their wealth or attempt to fix the inequality. The reason is that mentally, they have grown into their wealth along with the boundaries they support. The boundaries that people have regarding social classes and living may be satisfying to some individuals. However, these boundaries eventually worsen the cycle of poverty and cause more to suffer.
Boundaries may exist in every aspect of our lives, though it is up to us whether we realize it or not. In the profiles of the artists, they act as characters who make us realize the certain existence of boundaries as they are ones who act out and stick out from the crowd. After analyzing and evaluating their personal experience and what their artwork have proven, it has come to a conclusion that some boundaries exist just because we assume it is right. Boundaries are not necessarily needed and that if we were to get rid of boundaries or extend them, more positivity might be an answer to the actions.
We have never really reflected on why we have certain standards. For those who think of transgender being wrong just think of it wrongfully, but no further explanation is provided of why changing someone physically is wrong. If going through a transsexual surgery is wrongful because it is changing a body that we were born with then why would those who had a plastic surgery be commenting on it? This is another phenomenon that shows people are setting boundaries just because they do not do certain actions and see it as incorrect for those who do. Boundaries towards sexuality are being set as any love other than a romance formed by a female, and a male is wrongful. Reasons for the being is that we were born with the ability to produce the next generation and higher chances diseases are results of intercourse of two men. Being born with the ability to produce the next generation does not mean that we are obligated to. For those who say that it is wrongful for gay love because a higher chance of diseases is results of intercourse of two men, they may also want to say intercourse of a female and male being wrongful as a sexual disease may be a result of it as well. People become judgmental when they encounter doings that they do not understand or disapprove. The same is true regarding boundaries of social classes. The rich believes that inequality is acceptable because they cannot give up their wealth. They are willing to believe in themselves deserving everything they have while their advantages are built off of the people of poverty.
After looking at the boundaries and how the artists have come to the point of successfully inspiring others, it is quite obvious that not following beliefs of boundaries does not mean a bad thing. Greer Lankton created dolls which were out of the standards of a “pretty” doll like Barbie, but people still viewed her dolls as beautiful and even having more of a character to them. Because Lankton followed her feelings, she was able to create dolls that allowed her to express themselves and developed her influential art career. Yayoi Kusama went on with believing in her type of art as well. Dots and patterns may just be considered as a simple type of art usually and may not gain a lot of recognition, well most likely not to a world-class recognition, but Yayoi Kusama went on to pursue her love for art through her way of expression. In the end, she did not only gained world- class achievements. She even created the “Infinity Mirrored Room” which was viewed as an almost impossible existence in others eyes.
Reaching beyond or stepping past boundaries shall be an encouraged action. Not in a harmful or risky way, but like how the artists have done boundaries breaking actions to seek for more possibilities or self-exploration. Within the Johnny Miller’s “Unequal Scenes,” the reflection of poverty and rich is brought up in a different perspective. His art points out for the fact that poverty gave the opportunity to the rich to continue their rich lifestyle, and another point made is that, if the rich were to have different beliefs and put down the boundaries of classes and living, a better cycle could be made from it. Better environment and living condition for the poor means to enhance the standards of citizens in a whole community, if citizens where to improve intellectually and health wise, does that not create advantages for businesses to have better chances of having better employees and workers? The rich should think beyond beliefs they have currently and consider options they have outside of their actions right now. Yayoi Kusama teaches us that thinking beyond boundaries is pleasing and enjoyable. Since her start of her art at 10, till later years, she expressed her love of art through what she believed. She would not have been Yayoi Kusama if she followed boundaries of physical that we always hear about. She gained more insight in life and created works that others were not able to due to her decision and stance of following her goals.
Boundaries are also known limitations. If we were to think of the concept of limitations, we know that possibilities are less likely to appear with limitation. The limitation is good, when is suppresses the growth of factors that may destroy a balance or cause negative effects to a situation. In our lives and society, the limitation and boundaries we face are countless, and if we live by them all, we will just have a dull experience of life which we may regret at the end of our days.
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