Genetics is a study in biology that deals with how parents pass traits to their children. The genetics of an organism are found in DNA molecules which facilitates the cells with the information necessary for survival, growth as well as reproduction (Lewis, 2016). As a result of heredity, children look like their parents because DNA replicates and is passed to the offspring. The genes not only contributes to how an organism looks but also on the behavior. The expression of the genes can, however, be impacted by the environment that an organism lives in.

Gene is the backbone of heredity, and they are obtained from both the mother and the father during social reproduction. A combination of different genes contributes to physical traits such as height and the color of the eyes(Lewis, 2016). Genes are found in chromosomes which is a structure in the nucleus of the cells that looks like a thread. Each human being has 23 pairs of the chromosome with half coming from the father and the other half from the mother. Genetic inheritance occurs during sexual reproduction where two organisms of different sex contribute DNA for a new organism that is they create.

Genetic testing or DNA testing is used to determine the birth father and mother of an offspring. The process is however not limited to identity determination but is also applicable in testing genetic diseases(Jorde, Carey, & Bamshad, 2015). Through DNA testing it is possible to find the genes that are likely to facilitate genetic disorders in human beings. There has been an advancement in DNA testing over the years has it is used in determining risks of getting diseases such as heart attack and cancer. Due to these advancements reading materials is not enough to get adequate insights on genetics. It is crucial to visit laboratories to obtain primary data on how DNA testing is carried out.


Jorde, L. B., Carey, J. C., & Bamshad, M. J. (2015). Medical genetics. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Lewis, R. (2016). Human genetics: the basics. Garland Science.

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