The spread of infectious disease can be significantly reduced through hand washing. Foodborne infections and water infections are reduced by up to 70% by proper hand washing (Mshida, Kassim, Kimanya & Mpolya, 2017). The number of children below five years who annually die of pneumonia and diarrhea is about 1.7million, this is according to a report by The United Nations Children Fund. Pandemic health risks associated with food poisoning are gaining an upward trend (Lee, Hong & Kim, 2015). Washing hands with soap using running water helps to prevent the occurrence of infections and subsequently reduces diarrhea and respiratory system diseases incidents. Hand washing has a high efficacy rate and it easy to perform, it contributes to the reduction of diarrhea in children by 30%. In public facilities such as learning institutions and hospitals, the practice of hand hygiene techniques leads to reduced infections and consequently reduced use of medical resources.
The occurrence of digestive and respiratory system infections among children with poor hand hygiene techniques.
Readiness for Learning:
The following factors indicate readiness for learning about hand washing in children:
requent occurrence of diseases caused by infections that can be prevented through hand washing.
The inability to properly wash hands.
Children raising concern about how to remove significant dirt on their hands
Children being explorative and keep touching everything
Learning Theory to Be Utilized
The germ theory of disease by Louis Pasteur describes the concept that pathogens or microorganisms invade the body and cause disease (Klebanov, 2018). These pathogens are not visible to the eye but only through the microscope. Therefore these microorganisms are transferable from one surface to the other. The greatest contributor to germ transfer is contact; therefore, the teaching activity will employ demonstrations which show children how germs are transferred from one person to the other or from a surface to one’s skin. Hopefully, children will learn the concept of germ transfer and therefore appreciate hand washing practice more.
The objective used as the goal for the teaching activity is reducing the number of invasive pneumococcal infections. The set objective is significant and fits the purpose of the activity because it seeks to prevent the occurrence of an infectious disease. Given that hand washing seeks to eliminate germs which can cause diseases then it is justified that the objective is utilized to meet the goals of the activity. The goals are as follows:
Preventing micro-organism cross-transmission
To enhance wellness in children by equipping them with knowledge about positive hand hygiene techniques.
To teach children how to use proper hand washing practice to prevent common infections caused by germ transfer.
Objectives, and strategies
The behavioural objectives and strategies for the activity include ensuring that children identify the critical times they are required to wash their hands using the procedure taught. The target audience will be able to use soap during hand washing activity effectively. Children will be able to identify how germs are transmitted from one point to another and how washing hands prevents the spread of pathogens.
Evaluation of the effectiveness of the teaching activity
The effectiveness of the activity will be assessed using immediate methods and a follow-up event. The immediate methods entail assessing knowledge gained by asking children questions about what they have learned. To get the best results, children will respond to questions before the program and after the program. A comparison of the responses to the question will determine if the teaching was effective in equipping them with theoretical knowledge.
Asking children to repeat the hand washing steps is also informative with regards to assessing teaching effectiveness. If the children can repeat the steps correctly, then the teaching is said to be effective.
A follow-up activity to assess the continuity of hygienic hand washing activity is crucial. By interviewing teachers and observing children at a later time to identify the behavior towards hand hygiene.
Messy washrooms are significant barriers to hand washing activities. When public institution’s washrooms are dirty, children find them unwelcoming and do not like to use them. Additionally, there may be a lack of supplies that re needed to wash hand and therefore preventing hand washing practice. As such, it is essential to always keep the washroom clean and with sufficient supplies.
Hand washing consumes a considerable amount of time and without a proper routine time for children to follow, many of them skip cleaning their hands.
The possibility of getting hands recontaminated after cleaning is very high. By touching taps as one closes the water or touching washroom door handles, the hands become dirty and present a chance for contacting an infection. When the wastebasket is placed far from the door, paper towels cannot be used to open the door.
Children forget quickly, and they need to be constantly reminded to wash their hands. If left without supervision or guidance they will forget to practice hand hygiene.
Mshida, H., Kassim, N., Kimanya, M., & Mpolya, E. (2017). Influence of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Practices on Common Infections among Under-Five Children in Longido and Monduli Districts of Arusha, Tanzania. Journal Of Environmental And Public Health, 2017, 1-8. doi: 10.1155/2017/9235168
Lee, M., Hong, S., & Kim, Y. (2015). Handwashing with soap and national handwashing projects in Korea: focus on the National Handwashing Survey, 2006-2014. Epidemiology And Health, 37, e2015039. doi: 10.4178/epih/e2015039
Klebanov, N. (2018). Genetic Predisposition to Infectious Disease. Cureus, 9(23). doi: 10.7759/cureus.3210