Health Across the Lifespan


Question 1

The main issue of discussion is on the health outcome of smoking. In this case, two variables must be taken into consideration that is, the dependent and the independent variable. Smoking has the potential of causing chronic diseases like cancer and heart attack on the human body. Therefore, smoking determines the situation of a person’s health. This means that human health is the dependent variable while smocking is the independent variable. The social-ecological model will mainly focus on the strategies that can be used to prevent smoking. One must first comprehend the factors that influence individuals to smoke, its effects, and the prevention strategies. This model will consider the interplay between public policy, community, organizational, interpersonal and individual factors. Fist, the applicable laws in a region will determine if individuals will smoke or not. People are likely to shun smoking if the relevant national and local rules are strict on such issues. Community settings such as schools or workplaces are likely to influence individual behaviors. For example, discipline in schools can prevent learners from smoking. Organizational or social institutions such as the church can assist in decreasing this behavior by condemning it. Also, a person’s close associates such as the parents have a significant influence on individual behavior. As a result, these individuals must be involved in the prevention process. Personal factors focus on biological and individual history issues that increase a person’s chances of smoking. They include income, level of education and genetic factors among others. Besides, it is essential to note that the associates of an individual can assist him or her to quit smoking.






Question 2

There are several tenets of the lifespan theory. The first one is that human life is a long process and people can develop throughout their lifespans. There is no reason why an individual should reach a decline stage even after aging. Therefore, development is expected to continue throughout a person’s life. Thus, individuals in their old age are expected to exercise regularly and eat a better diet. This is because their bodies become less active because they rarely exercise. Secondly, the development among the humans cuts across various dimensions such as biological, emotional and cognitive factors. Emotional factors comprise of issues such as stress, relationships, and physical health.

On the other hand, cognitive factors comprise factors such as attention, memory and a person’s reasoning. There is also the issue of multidirectional growth that states that the progression of development is not always forward. Though, there are many gains during the early stages of a person’s lifespan than the later stages.


Human development also permits the use of plasticity. It refers to the ability of a person to adapt to change. For example, a kid who loses all the hands can learn how to use his or her feet to handle various tasks. The adaptation will result in the development of other body systems and muscles. Finally, human development does not occur in a vacuum. It means that people cannot live in isolation since the environment influences them. It includes issues such as the environment and nutrition that affect a person’s early stages of development.

Question 3

Health disparities cause differences in the quality of healthcare that some individuals get. Racism is one of the factors that cause these challenges in the health sector. Race is associated with adverse health outcomes because it leads to discrimination. As a result, individuals from a particular race can be denied the quality and affordable healthcare. Racism can also result in cases of negligence on the part of health professionals. This is because they are likely to have a negative attitude towards individuals who do not come from their race. Besides, racism can lead to unfair treatment among people who come from a race that is considered to be inferior. Therefore, it may lower their self-esteem while seeking treatment in various health centers. Race is also related to adverse health outcomes because some individuals can be favored at the expense of others. Therefore, the objectives of universal health might not be achieved in the long-run. Finally, racism can result in unequal distribution of health resources. In this case, the areas dominated by the race that is considered to be superior can get more resources than other regions. Consequently, organizations must make efforts to reduce the bad effects of racism in the health sector. This will ensure that all people who deserve medical care are treated equally.

Question 4

Cumulative disadvantage means that if a person fails to gain a small advantage over others, he or she will continue for a long time. Thus, many individuals perceive it as a risk in life. An example of this issue in the health sector is where the poor are discriminated against in the healthcare system. Besides, the concept of cumulative advantage states that a social agent is likely to compound gains if he gets a little privilege over other agents. This trend is expected to occur over time. It is the reason why the wealthy continue accumulating resources while the less fortunate remains poor. An example of cumulative advantage in the health sector is where the rich chose where they can be treated. Though, the poor cannot afford even primary healthcare insurance.

Question 5

The most exciting thing that I learned in class is about the lifespan theory. It is because the concept describes the life of a human being from the time of birth up to old age. The study was interesting because I was able to comprehend the sequence of events and the experiences that people encounter in life. One of the exciting things I learned is that the human development process is continuous. Therefore, there is no phase that one is expected to experience a decline even at old age. Thus, this issue caught my attention since most individuals expect the last stage of human development to occur at an early age. Another essential thing during human development is about the adoption of the environment. It usually happens when one has lost some of the body parts like hands. It was interesting for me to learn how a person can adopt new ways of doing things especially by the use of feet. This indicates that the stages of human development do not end at any phase. Besides, the issue of plasticity enables people to continue with their normal lives despite the challenges that they may encounter. I can explore this study through the use of exploratory research methods. This involves establishing priorities and conducting intensive research on the subject. The last approach is by the use of descriptive technique where I will observe and describe behavior without influencing it in any way.