|Economic goods: Cotton
Financial disparity systems:Slavery, Land encroachment
|The Homestead Act (1862)
This Act was implemented to safeguard settlers from being invaded by westward migrants who wanted to dispossess them from their land Congress passed the Act in 1862 with regards to President AbrahamLincoln’s concern about the potential of Union defeat during the early stages of the Civil War that would have caused expansion of slavery into the west. The Act permitted household above the age of twenty-one including women who were unmarried to receive up to 160 acres of land at a nominal fee. Individuals who were allocated the area were required to develop it within five years.Two hundred seventy million of acres of landwere transferred into private citizen domain by the American government.
The Pacific Railway Act (1862)
This Act was enacted to enhance quick movement o the settler in the west. It improved movement of farm produce such as cotton back into the east. The law granted the Union Pacific Railroad to establish new railway track in the west from Omaha moving to the east in Sacramento, California.
Black Codes (1861)
Reforms on the Black Codes were enacted to limit the civil rights of slaves who had been freed. The whites attempted to use the Black Codes to restrict African Americans from enjoying the second class status without voting rights and citizenship.
|White colonial superiority
The whites were the masters while the Indians and back Americans were regarded as slaves. And was purely owned by the whites.
Movement of the white easterners, African Americans and other migrants into the west shaped the citizenship conditions. American citizenship was granted to Mexicans when they declared their intention of staying in America but retain their Mexican right of citizenship.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo enacted the condition that Mexicans would legal protection of property ownership and exercise their religion, culture, and language only when granted the U.S citizenship since the land had been switched from Mexican to American ownership.
Capital, law, and ideologies during the 1800s to 1900s played a crucial role in shaping the social, economic, and political dimension of America. This period characterized American history as liberal. Liberalism period attributes the American society as the time in which individuals were infringed by the radical ideological that they possessed various sets of liberties and fundamental rights that they conferred upon birth. It included the rights and freedom to private property, free speech, and voting which have shaped American society today.
Throughout this copious period, the economic transformation of American society was characterized by economic expansion, improved transportation, and industrialization. The changes were evident in the establishment of new transportation systems such as the construction of the Pacific railway that connected the south and the north to enhance transportation of cotton and other economic goods (Foley 42). Social mobility was improved leading to increased economic activity that raised the income of individuals. By 1830s, Mississippi river provided a perfect environmental condition for production of cotton making cotton production profitable in the American economy (Foley 95). The prices of land rose while the elite white setters became increasingly wealthy since they settled in fertile soil.
For the duration of this historical, the majority of African Americans had been enslaved into cotton plantation to act as a source of labor. White settlers had been given supremacy to rule over the slaves, and they were known as masters. Black Code had been implemented to limit African Americans from exercising their fundamental rights (Alvarez 162). African Americans had been barred from voting and lived without citizen rights. The racial identity fractured along the line of class-leading to African American revolution to shit the power relation and ideologies. Marriage institutions which were fundamental in the African American culture had been restricted since the masters believed that children would be a financial burden to families leading to a decrease in labor forces. After the abolition of slavery in the northern state in 1820, freemen were still denied the right to vote in the southern region. Segregation by law denied African Americans civil liberty by tradition and cultural practices. It is only in Massachusetts where blacks were permitted to sit injuries. Poor working conditions, low wages, fight for citizenship, and right to vote led to a series of revolution from 1849 and after bringing transformation in the American society (Alvarez 230).
During this passé, one of the significant political events that shaped American history was the fight by the American minority groups to take part in the voting process and court processes. Republicanism describes this period(Nevins 80). Republicanism held that America should be governed by officials who were elected. The elected leaders were responsible for the rights and freedom of the populace. African Americans engaged in numerous revolution groups to fight for their rights to citizenship and voting to achieve equity by selecting leaders who would advocate for their basic needs. Reforms were made on the Black Codes, and they were allowed to take part in the voting process years later.
Foley, Neil. The Old South in the Southwest: Westward Expansion of Cotton Culture, 1820-1900. University of California Press, 1999. Print
Alvarez, Luis. The Power of the Zoot: Youth Culture and Resistance during World War II. University of California Press, 2008
Nevins, Joseph. The Bounding of the United States and the Emergence of Operation Gatekeeper. Routledge, 2002.
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