One of the basic needs that every human being should be able to enjoy is a shelter. Having a roof above one’s head does not only make them comfortable but also safe from some health threatening factors. Housing needs to be affordable to enable the family to overcome any financial difficulties. What is the significance of affordable housing? If one lives in a house that takes up a significant percentage of their salary, they will find it challenging to meet other basic needs such as food and education (Gurran, 2016). With an affordable house, people enjoy financial freedom, which also impacts the quality of health and security that their families receive. An affordable housing system is required because of the lasting impact that it may have on the homeowners. The government is responsible for the continuous increase in the prices of housing in Hong Kong. This is because they can subsidize the building and construction of houses so that people can afford them easily. At the same time, the government is in charge of the land, and they can dictate the terms and conditions that have to be followed by the constructors. The government can also put in place rules and regulations that control the prices. This would prevent the ordinary citizens from being exploited by their house or nurse thereby making life a little bit easier for them.
Hong Kong has one of the most expensive housing markets in the globe. It has been on top of Demographia’s list for the better part of the last ten years. Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey is an organization focused on comparing the cost of housing versus the average income of residents within a given city. The ratio of the two variables is then used to rank the cities. If, for instance, a city has a value more than ten, it means that the gap between the market price of the houses and the average income is quite huge. As such, the affordability of such housing is quite low; high unaffordability is another way to put it (Tsang et al., 2016).
Why is Hong Kong’s housing costly? Many reasons could answer this question. There are two ways to look at it, one of them being the price of the houses and the other being the income of the citizens. At any given time, a product can be unaffordable because some buyers cannot raise the asking price, or the cost of the goods is generally too high for everyone. Such scenarios may be caused by the supply of housing not matching the demand. This factor is among the primary reasons why the people of Hong Kong are finding it difficult to buy new homes within the city. It is the nature of any business to raise their prices whenever they see an opportunity. The low supply of houses is because there is no much developable space available(Wu, 2015). Another important explanation is the cost of land in Hong Kong. The government is in charge of all the public, and the developers can only get any plot through tenders, which makes it quite expensive.
How can Hong Kong’s government make the housing market affordable to its citizens? There is a very high probability that the relevant authorities have posted this question to themselves several times. The only way to find the solution is to reevaluate all the causes. This paper will focus on the results of an online study concerning the housing crisis of Hong Kong. Some of them include supply and demand and the cost of land as the leading causes of unaffordability. One one hand, the government, being the controller of all lands hikes the prices as the main source of income other than taxing other goods. When the prices are high, developers will set the rent or price of a house high. Also, the government is reluctant to develop more land for houses leading to low supply. A combination of low supply and high demand, from the law of supply and demand, makes the price to hike. Most of the land is hilly making it unsuitable for building houses. A conclusion is made after going through several online materials including the most recent reports published by Demographia. The study sets questions, which are asked through social media concerning the income and cost of housing. The data collected is analyzed and compared to the existing literature to come up with the conclusion.
The study found that housing in Hong Kong is unaffordable because of high pricing of land by the government to generate income. Also, there are few people supplying housing services compared to demand thereby raising the cost of housing. The limited supply also results from limited area to elect houses because of the landscape and government’s move to conserve the environment. A conclusion is given that the government to create more land which people can develop and therefore increase supply.
A person’s success, as well as that of the country, is significantly affected by housing. The affordability of a house will directly impact the spending power of an individual hence restricting them from enjoying quality products and services (Rogers et al., 2017). For example, if the price of private housing in a given city is about ten times the salary of a given individual, this service alone will eat into most of their annual salary. Therefore, as a rule of thumb, one should always buy a house that they can pay for without having to sacrifice other basic needs such as food, education, and health.
Although this rule is quite useful to the financial health of a person, it is sometimes impossible to implement it due to expensive housing in some cities, or countries. Hong Kong is an example of such a region where it is quite challenging to come across a cheap and decent house. Many people living in Hong Kong find it challenging to pay for their homes and still sustain all the other basic needs. According to Demographia, Hong Kong’s score was 18.1 in the 2017 financial year (Kim et al., 2017). It is essential to look at how Demographia calculates it to have a deeper insight into this result.
Demographia finds the quotient of the housing costs versus the average yearly salary within the area. When applied to Hong Kong, the result was found to be 18.1. It means that the price of houses in this area is eighteen times the average salary of an individual living in the region. This value was the highest in the world according to the 2017 survey. A better interpretation would be, a person earning $60,000 per year will use about $1,080,000 on housing. That value is quite high even for those receiving a fortune. As such, if one needs a house, they will need to make several sacrifices to achieve their goals.
The calculations above indicate that the most critical component is the ratio of the annual salary to the housing prices. These are the two variables that are typically used in any survey by Demographia. Therefore, if a government wants to tackle the issue of housing, it will have to consider narrowing the ratio to a smaller value. In other words, the difference between the amount paid for a house and the amount earned by an individual should not be significant. For instance, if on average, people make around $40,000 per year, the cost of houses should be in the range of $200,000 to $300,000. Although this value is still high, the apartments will be a lot more affordable, and the citizens will be able to afford most of the basic needs.
The most reasonable way of reducing the gap between the two variables will be to reduce the cost of housing. It is the only possible way because it is quite difficult to increase everyone’s wages. It is almost impossible because people work in different companies and every organization has its financial policy. Therefore, the government has no moral right to compel any company to change its financial rules unless it is well-stipulated by law. However, the government can reduce the cost of housing by adjusting some factors such as taxes and land rates. Hong Kong is one city that could benefit from these adjustments because the government has full control over the public land.
According to Saiidi (2017) from CNBC, Hong Kong’s tax system is one of the friendliest in the world. Also, a study by the TMF Group of Netherlands ranked Hong Kong among the top ten countries with the lowest taxes (Zhang, 2017). Hong Kong’s government is more dependent on the sale of properties than the deductions in people’s and business profits. Some of these assets include land, and their prices are kept high enough to ensure economic sustainability. If by any chance the cost of these assets is lowered, less money will be gained by the government and it will not be able to accomplish all its goals.
Another reason that could be given for the unaffordability of the houses is the supply and demand. In any market, the supply and demand of a product are two factors that can either make or break the purchasing power of the buyers. If the supply is high, then the sellers will have to drop their prices because the customers can access the products from other places too. However, if the demand is a lot higher than the supply, the asking prices tend to go high, and the customers will be forced to pay a fortune to enjoy them. Such is the case in Hong Kong, where there is a small number of houses, but the demand is very high. A theory that could explain why the supply is quite low is either the prices of land or the availability of the developable space (Bonnet, 2018). Hills surround Hong Kong. Hence there is no much space to erect buildings.
This section will cover the procedures that I undertook in my research that led to the results that will later be presented in this paper.
This is qualitative research that will use the opinions and views of the people on the understanding of affordability of the housing situation in hong kong. Some of the people who were interviewed to get their opinions to include middle-aged people renting the houses, and the poor members of society. In addition to this, the rich people will also have an opportunity to air their views about the housing situation which has been a problem to almost everyone within the society. The government is also responsible for the housing situation in hong kong, and therefore they will also be part of this research. The government is responsible for different ideas in the society, and therefore they have the ability to control the prices of houses and make them available for the members of the society. Through them participating in such kind of research, the people will get the opinion of the government and what they feel about the continuous increase of the housing prices in hong kong. Since it was a study that had to be completed within a limited time, I employed the cross-sectional survey method. In this type of research, the data is collected within a single period rather than having a range of time within which the information is gathered. To determine whether a housing market is affordable or not, one has to consider the two factors and how their relationship with each other(Castro Camposet al., 2016). A more significant gap between the two means that the quotient will be high. It shows that there is a high unaffordability of housing within the market under study.
The independent and dependent variables in this particular research are the low supply of affordable housing in hong kong and the continuous demand for affordable housing respectively. The former idea is an independent one because the law supply has proven to be an issue which is continuously increasing the price. On the other hand, affordable housing depends on the house supply where in case the houses have been sufficiently available, then the prices are likely to produce, and many people are likely to rent the houses cheaply. In this case, the law demand and supply of houses in hong kong is the independent variable as it does not depend on anything. On the other hand, affordable housing is the dependent variable leading to an investigation as to whether the land supply can lead to an increase in the housing affordability within the city. Housing in the city hong kong has always been a problem and ideas or research about methods that can be used to provide affordable houses to the people have always been suggested by scholars from different fields. Through the supply of land, many dentists can build houses that can be used to serve the people and they can be made available at a cheaper price that can help the situation.
Convenience sampling was used in the study because everyone could be available on social media. Since this was online research, the most effective way to identify the pool was via social media. Facebook and Twitter are the most significant social media apps available to us in the modern world. At least 90% of the population aged 18 or more years have access to one of the two social media platforms (Cerutti et al., 2015). Therefore, it would be quite easy to identify the people that qualify for the survey. On Facebook, I searched for groups and pages of people living in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Housing is one of the Facebook pages that passed the test.
However, not everyone who likes a page or joins a Facebook page is always interested in the subject. As such, it was essential to sample some of the members based on what they knew and their interest in the matter. Through private messaging, some of the members communicated to me and fifty people qualified for the survey. Some of the questions asked during the qualification stage included the place of residence, whether or not they have bought a house within the last five years, and if they would be interested in taking part in the study.
The study used questionnaires to collect data from the sample. After identifying the sample, those who qualified for the process received a link to a customized website. On the landing page of this website, there were five questions, and one was allowed to answer them only once. The five questions were; how much is your annual salary? How much is the cost of your most recent house? How can you describe the tax system of Hong Kong? How easy is it to find a home in Hong Kong? (scale of one to ten) What do you think the government should do increase the affordability of housing in Hong Kong? I used this tool to collect the data because it is the easiest way. With a customized website, a researcher does not have to do the calculations manually because the results are automatically generated. Also, it becomes somehow easier for individuals to submit their answers because it only requires them to tick the boxes (it is convenient for both parties).
After everyone had answered the questions presented on the website, the next procedure was analysis. TheThe cross-tabulation method was used to analyze the data where the figures collected were added to get then average. The tool added all the values of the annual wages and divided the sum with fifty. The resulting value was the average yearly salary of the people who were sampled for the research. The same process was done for the cost of housing then the result divided by the quotient in the previous calculation. The final answer found from this calculation is the score of Hong Kong’s housing market (Chan & S, 2016). The last question was meant to give the researcher an idea of what the people think of the government’s policy with regards to the subject. It is always important to let people give their views to get more insight into the issue.
One of the difficulties experienced in this research is judging how genuine some of the people were. With the current technology, one cannot judge a social media user conclusively based on their profile information alone. An individual could fill their personal information to fit their needs, but it is not necessarily the correct data. However, since Demographia has done these studies before, I used some of their data just for comparison.
From this research, it is evident that their opinions of the government and other members of the society are for the people to have affordable houses. The homeowners have to find ways of reducing the house prices so that the ordinary citizens can also afford them, and the people who are responsible for the continuous increase of the house prices. The government was held to step into the situation by putting together policies for these homeowners to avoid the continuous increase. This can also be done by subsidizing the houses so that their prices can be manageable by the citizens.The poor members of the society believe that the government is responsible for the continuous increase of that house prices. They believe that the government can change policies that affect the house rental rates including the general price of land. Many members of the middle class believe that the government can subsidize the building procedures so that those who build the apartments do not take the full cost thereby increasing the prices to compensate for the cost that they are used in the building. On the other hand, the government believes that there are policies that have to be taken into consideration before having an implementation of a strategy for reducing the house prices.
The first question that was presented on the website was on the annual salary. The answers received from the fifty people that were sampled ranged between $70,000 and $137,000. The average value found from the calculations was $83,000 per year. Therefore, based on the results, an average person living in Hong Kong earns anything above or just below $83,000 annually. It is a life-sustaining income since one can afford almost all the basic needs. However, as earlier stated, the big problem in Hong Kong is not the salaries, but the cost of housing(Cheng, 2014). This fact is evident from the answers to the second question.
According to the sample, one will need anywhere between $1,207,000 and $1,606,000 if they are to get a decent house. The average cost of housing based on these answers was found to be $1,370,000. It is quite a high value considering the annual salaries of the individuals who were presenting the information. The final part of the process was finding the score of Hong Kong’s housing market based on the gathered information. The average housing cost was divided by the annual average wage,and the resulting value was 16.51. According to Demographia, the multiple counts of Hong Kong in 2017 was 18.1, that is about 1.6 values more than the calculated value of this research(Rogers et al., 2018). That is an acceptable margin of error since Demographia’s analysis sampled more people than what was done in this research.
The responses to the third question had a general feeling that the tax system is quite lenient. Everyone pointed to the fact that most goods and services do not face taxation highly. Therefore, it is quite easy for one to access these products without straining their wallet. Some of the respondents also pointed out that the only thing that makes some of the products too expensive is competition and not taxation. However, since the government will still need to raise some revenue to support its development, most of the money is generated from the sale of lands and other assets (Doling & Ronald, 2014).
The fourth question focused on the ease of finding a house in Hong Kong. The respondents were expected to choose any number between one and ten to rate the probability of success. The range was further divided into three sections to make it easier for analysis. The first section was one, two and three; the second was four, five, six and seven, then the rest completed the third section. The lower part of the division meant low probability, the second part was average, while the final piece was for high likelihood. Thirty-nine responses fell in the lower segment, 11 in the middle section, while no one chose any number above seven.
The final part of the questionnaire asked about the people’s opinion on how the government could solve the problem. There were several answers, and most of them were related to the cost and expansion of the developable land. There is a golf club called The Hong Kong Golf Club that covers a vast amount of land. According to one of the responses, golf is not a Chinese sport, and the government should, therefore, redevelop the area to provide space for building more houses. Another person stated that another solution is to distribute the taxes across other commodities so that the price of land can drop. This option will mean that the costs are shared across all goods and services making it a lot easier for people to deal with the high prices (Groves, 2016). The government will still gain its revenue but not from one sector
The results of the research, as shown in the findings, shows that the score of the housing market of Hong Kong is 16.51. The meaning of this is that the cost of a house in this city is sixteen times the average annual income of the residents. For instance, if a person earns $50,000 annually, then the market will force him or her to spend sixteen times that salary on purchasing a decent house. Therefore, this particular taxpayer will have to put aside about $800,000 for housing alone (He, 2014). Most of the residents testified that they had tried various ways of compensating for the continuous increase of the house prices and they are not aware of the methods that they can use. For the middle-income earners, they spend most of their money on houses and remain with very little to help the economy. The government is aware of the role that is played by the taxpayers on the economy for the growth of the country. However, it is difficult for the governments to accumulate enough resources because most of the income and by the middle-income individuals go to the houses. This has created a massive concern that calls for many inventions that can help solve the situation. The government is well aware of the demands in the houses in hong kong, and they are various plants that have been put in place to reduce the prices and help the people afford the houses. From this research, it is most likely that night supply of affordable houses in hong kong is going to remain limited because of the factors such as in availability of land among other factors.
To further put it into context, it will take a person earning the amount mentioned above sixteen years to complete the payment of his or her house. It is crucial to note that the sixteen-year salary is gross income. In other words, no deductions or extra expenses have been included in the calculations. Therefore, hypothetically speaking, one will have to forego other needs like food, hospital bills, and education if they are going to settle the housing bills within the said time ultimately; that is as expensive as Hong Kong’s housing gets(Huang et al., 2015).
It is a problem that has faced the people of Hong Kong for a very long time. In this region, even those who earn vast amounts of salaries feel the pinch. For example, an individual making $200,000 per year will still suffer the same predicament. The gap between this salary and the cost of housing is still too big. Therefore, it will require one to make several sacrifices to enable them to live in a good house. Sacrificing other basic needs to accomplish one goal is what can sometimes hinder one’s success. If a taxpayer makes a decision to buy a house and he earns $150,000 per year, he will be expected to pay for the property for over ten years. Within this period, the kids have to go to school, and the family needs food and healthcare. As such, one’s bank account strained and no much developments can be done.
The same effect the economy because the buying power of the taxpayers is limited. A country’s economy is always reliant on the rate at which money flows between people and businesses (La Grange et al., 2016). The same is also dependent on the purchasing power of the consumers. However, if one is limited to paying for two or three products and services per year, there will a huge impact on the economy. Therefore, if the housing crisis continues, Hong Kong may start facing some economic issues shortly.
The question of taxation yielded a variety of responses, but all of them pointed to the idea that it is a friendly system. Both the people and the government are the beneficiaries of such a system. The people benefit in the sense that they have a chance to make any profits from their businesses (Leung & Tang, 2014). In other countries, one will have to pay for other documentation apart from the licenses. The government generates some of its revenues from the distribution of these additional registrations. However, in Hong Kong, some of them are not applicable, meaning that a business will make more money. Also, most of the products are either not taxed or have meager taxation rates (Li, 2015). As such, the consumers can purchase them at low prices and the sellers will still make a good income. Even though the government will not be getting its revenue from taxes, it will do so from the property sales. Therefore, land and other related resources tend to be very expensive.
The effect of the expensive lands is not only felt by the developers but also the consumers. If a developer buys a plot of land for $2 billion, they will need to sell the house at insane prices to make any reasonable profits. Otherwise, the developers will always be at a loss whenever they get into such a business. As such, those who would like to have private homes will have to set aside much money to have a chance offulfilling their dreams(Li & Chau, 2016). The government should, therefore, consider this as one of the leads to the solution for the crisis that is becoming disastrous by day.
According to those who answered the questionnaire, it is quite difficult to find a house in Hong Kong. The findings showed that 39 of the ratings fell in the lowest section while no one selected any number on the opposite end of the range. These responses are a representation of what the people of Hong Kong think. It can be interpreted to mean that for every fifty people, about forty of them find it difficult to come across a house being sold. Therefore, it is safe to state that the probability of successfully buying a house in Hong Kong at this point and time is very low because of unavailability (Litman, 2018).
The result of the fourth question is more proof of the theory of supply and demand. As stated earlier in the paper, some of the studies done before have shown that there is a meager supply of housing facilities in Hong Kong (Rose, 2017). The city is one of the densely populated cities in the world, creating even a more significant gap between supply and demand. It is a factor that affects every business environment at some point. This scenario appears when there are many consumers, but the suppliers of certain products and services are not enough to satisfy the needs. In Hong Kong, there are two possible explanations for the low housing supply.
One of the explanation is that the government has all the control over public land. As such, the developers can only access the developable land through tenders. Small plots of land are sold at very high prices, and only those who can afford them will carry the day. The effect of this is that the number of suppliers drops because not all of them can afford to produce $2 billion for a small piece of land. Another explanation and the most significant is the availability of space to construct new buildings. Hong Kong is a hilly place, meaning that it is almost impossible to expand any further than the current location. Therefore, developers scramble for the remaining spaces, which are too small. Since the developers want to make more money out the business, they tend to construct tiny apartments to accommodate more people. However, regardless of the sizes, it is still challenging to satisfy the demand levels.
The problems highlighted in the four questions led to the final question which focused on the possible solutions. As expected, land expansion was the most common answer. Hong Kong government has to take steps to ensure that more space is created for the development of more housing facilities. Some of the answers to this question pointed fingers to the Hong Kong Golf Club. It is an area set aside for golfers and was built more than a century ago. It also has a huge parking lot. Some people believe that golf is not a Chinese thing and, therefore, should not be prioritized over the basic needs of people. It is a fair argument because golf is not in the culture of the Chinese, and at the same time people need a place to stay (Squires & White, 2019). It might be an essential facility to a part of the community, but given the current situation, housing should be prioritized.
Any move that creates more developable land is a solution to this problem. However, it is very hard to achieve this while ensuring that Hong Kong’s green environment is kept safe. For instance, a decision could be made to create space in the peripheral areas of Hong Kong’s parks. Although it will be a great move, the same could escalate to a whole new problem. It is similar to forest destruction, once a part of it has been cut down, it will become a habit, and within no time, the whole forest will be down (Tris, 2014).
The main question of the study was whether it was easy to get a house and afford to pay rent or buy. Most of the respondent said that it was not easy to get, buy or rent because the supply was low and the prices high. Hong Kong’s housing is entirely unaffordable because of two main reasons, one of them being the land prices. The government does not depend more on taxation as a way revenue generation. Instead, it puts more emphasis on the cost of some of its properties, land being among them. Therefore, the price of land is set at a value that can only be afforded by a few people. Those who are lucky to buy these pieces of land construct houses and sell them at an amount that will lead to profits.
Since there are only a few suppliers, the issue of supply and demand comes in (and is made even worse by the density of the population in Hong Kong). Low supply is also as a resultof the spaces for erecting new buildings becoming extinct due to geographical issues. The sample size should be increasedto find more accurate answers in the future. Increasing the number of people ensures that a higher percentage of the total populationis represented. Also, people should not be from the same area of the city. It was not possible to do so in this research because the sample was randomly chosen from a social media platform.
Bonnet, O. (2018). Individual housing choices and aggregate housing prices (Doctoral dissertation, Sciences Po).
Castro Campos, B., Yiu, C. Y., Shen, J., Liao, K. H., &Maing, M. (2016). The anticipated housing pathways to homeownership of young people in Hong Kong. International Journal of Housing Policy, 16(2), 223-242.
Cerutti, E., Dagher, J., &Dell’Ariccia, M. G. (2015). Housing finance and real-estate booms: a cross-country perspective. International Monetary Fund.
Chan, M. K., & So, A. Y. (2016). Crisis and transformation in China’s Hong Kong. Routledge.
Cheng, J. Y. S. (2014). The emergence of radical politics in Hong Kong: Causes and impact. China Review, 14(1), 199-232.
Doling, J., & Ronald, R. (Eds.). (2014). Housing East Asia: socioeconomic and demographic challenges. Springer.
Gurran, N., Gallent, N., & Chiu, R. L. (2016). Politics, planning and housing supply in Australia, England, and Hong Kong. Routledge.
Groves, R. (2016). Housing and the new welfare state: Perspectives from East Asia and Europe. Routledge.
He, D. (2014). The effects of macroprudential policies on housing market risks: evidence from Hong Kong. Financial Stability Review, 18, 105-119.
Huang, J., Shen, G. Q., & Zheng, H. W. (2015). Is insufficient land supply the root cause of housing shortage? Empirical evidence from Hong Kong. Habitat international, 49, 538-546.
Kim, H. G., Hung, K. C., & Park, S. Y. (2015). Determinants of housing prices in Hong Kong: a Box-Cox quantile regression approach. The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, 50(2), 270-287.
La Grange, A., & Pretorius, F. (2016). State-led gentrification in Hong Kong. Urban Studies, 53(3), 506-523.
Leung, C. K., & Tang, E. C. H. (2014). Availability, affordability, and volatility: The case of Hong Kong housing market. Available at SSRN 2524685.
Li, J. (2015). Recent trends on housing affordability research: where are we up to?. Available at SSRN 2555439.
Li, R. Y. M., & Chau, K. W. (2016). Econometric analyses of international housing markets. Routledge.
Litman, T. (2018). True Affordability: Critiquing the International Housing Affordability Survey.
Rogers, D., Nelson, J., & Wong, A. (2018). Geographies of hyper‐commodified housing: foreign capital, market activity, and housing stress. Geographical Research.
Rogers, D., Wong, A., & Nelson, J. (2017). Public perceptions of foreign and Chinese real estate investment: intercultural relations in Global Sydney. Australian Geographer, 48(4), 437-455.
Rose, J. (2017). The Housing Supply Myth.
Saiidi, U. (2017) Here’s Why Hong Kong Housing is so Expensive. Cnbc.com. retrieved from www.cnbc.com/2017/04/09/heres-why-hong-kong-housing-is-so-expensive.html
Squires, G., & White, I. (2019). Resilience and housing markets: Who is it really for?. Land Use Policy, 81, 167-174.
Tris, K. E. E. (2014). Adaptive reuse of industrial buildings for affordable housing in Hong Kong. Journal of Design and Built Environment, 14(1).
Tsang, C. K., Wong, W. K., & Horowitz, I. (2016). Arbitrage opportunities, efficiency, and the role of risk preferences in the Hong Kong property market. Studies in Economics and Finance, 33(4), 735-754.
Wu, F. (2015). Commodification and housing market cycles in Chinese cities. International Journal of Housing Policy, 15(1), 6-26.
Zhang, R. J. (2017). A Tale of Two Cities: Comparative Study of Public Housing Policies of Hong Kong and Singapore.