Human Development Research


There are many ways of thinking about the topic of psychology. People are often lost on which perspective of thoughts to adopt. This article will focus on understanding the human development stages on three perspectives. The report aims at critically understanding my personal development from the biological, cognitive and psychosocial perspective. It bases its facts on theories that best suit the development process, and previously researched and documented books on psychology and human development. The article uses reading materials and analyses the perspectives of other psychologists who have explored the field and come up with their conclusions. The article clearly explains each aspect and rationally analyses the strengths and weaknesses of each perspective. The results of the research do not settle on any preferred way to describe human development. Therefore, no outlook is claimed better than the other. A conclusion cannot be made because this article only involves three out of a possible eight perspectives.



Human Development from Biological, Cognitive, and Psychosocial Perspective


Throughout my life, I have grown, changed, adapted and developed by going through various stages of development. From the time of conception up to date, I believe to have developed in aspects of personality, physical, social, perceptual, cognitive, intellectual and emotional growth. Human development occurs right from conception up until their time of death. Psychologists, through the scientific study of Development Psychology, strive to understand and explain how and why people change throughout life (Greenberg & Partridge, 2010). Initially, the Development Psychology field focused its research on infants and children. Over time, the field expanded its curiosity to the entire lifespan including adolescence, adulthood, and aging. Currently, psychologists focus on human growth and changes across their lifespan to understand how humans think, feel, learn, adapt and mature. The psychological studies and researches are conducted with the end goal designed to help humans reach their full potential. The study of developmental psychology is therefore very essential.

Biological Perspective

The biological perspective is also known as the Biopsychology and branch connect biology and psychology. It focuses on analyzing human behavior based on presented biological and physical evidence. This branch concludes that humans are a product of genetics and psychology by examining their feelings, thinking abilities, and behaviors (Zentall & Gaill, 2013). It was first proposed by Charles Darwin and assumes that it is necessary to include animals in any study aimed at understanding human behavior (Crain, 2015). According to this theory, a genetic basis is present in all human actions, behaviors originate from specific locations in the brain, and most reactions are either a byproduct of evolution or adaptation.

From a biological perspective, I can say that I have inherited various traits and personalities from my parents. The first trait is on emotional control which I believe to have inherited from my father and has been playing out as an advantage and disadvantage in my life. For instance, the emotional control trait means that I can keep emotions in check when I want. Therefore, emotional control has brought maturity and patience in my life which are necessary for learning institution because I have to deal with both the teachers and students. The other trait that I must have inherited from both of my parents is being musically influenced. For instance, my father and mother can play instruments. My father plays the guitar while my mother can play the electric organ. Therefore, I have been taking piano classes together with my sister. Hence I can say that music is a trait of my family. In considering the inherited characteristics, in this case, I would more agree with the hereditary theory. This theory suggests that behavioral traits are transferred from one person to another all through to subsequent generations in a genetic transfer.

The other trait I must have inherited from my parents is the love of English. Since childhood, I have been influenced by English to the point that I consider it to be the best language ever. The love of English is a trait I have inherited from my father considering that he was a debater during his high years. Besides, I have developed a great love for poetry and literature just like my father who is fond of such things. From the traits I have inherited I would agree with Charles Darwin theory of natural selection which suggests that the existence of a phenotypic variation is inherited and is present among all individuals. According to Darwin, natural selection ensures that random fluctuations in organisms and succeeding generations get at a better position to survive since they are better suited to the environment owing to their heritable traits.


Psychosocial Perspective

Psychosocial’ is a word coined by psychologist Erik Erikson from psychological (mind) and social (relationships) (Parker, 2014). This perspective focuses on sociocultural determinants. From a psychosocial perspective, I can say that my daily life lessons and challenges have helped me in growing up. According to Erik Erikson, the psychosocial perspective is an attempt at classifying social maturation as an eight-stage model for psychosocial. For instance, the developmental phase has helped me in resolving conflicts between ego development and social factors. From the Erikson assertions that each person’s development follows the same path although there is experiencing different outcomes during the phases is evident when I view my life from a psychosocial perspective. For instance, I have experienced primary socialization within my family during the early years of my life. Although the preschool context has had been my first experience in secondary socialization, I can with no doubt say that every social interaction in my new environments has represented a developmental occasion. Practically, the opportunities for playing especially the free, unstructured play types have provided an excellent chance for reinforcing and extending various critical life skills which span from infancy and childhood.

In looking at my development through the psychosocial perspective, I would be more focused on nurture and human experience. For instance, I was well nurtured and more attracted to my family just like most of the children which resulted in a strong attachment with both parents. I can term the attachment to the parents to be a motivational and behavioral system which directed me in seeking proximity especially when alarmed. Therefore, I can base my development of psychosocial perspective with the Erikson’s eight developmental stages of what he calls the human psychosocial crisis (Greenberg & Partridge, 2010). In each step, there are two contrary dispositions of opposing emotional forces which are an internal struggle that challenges and influences human behavior. He gives an overview of both positive and negative outcomes that may be associated with the forces (Parker, 2014). For one to be successful in passing through the eight stages of Erikson’s theory, they must strike a balance that would become fundamental strengths and virtues.

Cognitive Development

Cognitive development is best described as how knowledge gets ingested from birth to adulthood (Seligman, 2014). Cognitive development has included the development of my thoughts as well as how the thinking process affects people’s interactions and their understanding of the world. Therefore, cognitive development is a clear explanation of how I have gained information, developed gradually and use of internal mental capabilities like problem-solving, language and memory. In discussing my cognitive development, I would apply Piaget’s and Lev Vygotsky theory of social, cultural control. For instance, both Vygotsky and Piaget agree that children are actively involved in their learning. Piaget termed children to be lone explorers meaning that a child will develop cognitive skill when they work independently. On the other hand, Vygotsky assumed that youngsters require social interaction with adults or more able peers to assist in developing a higher functioning level than it can be achieved by the child alone.

In basing my development from Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, I can say that I have gathered hands-on experience by actively assembling knowledge (Neisser, 2014). Therefore, I can visualize my intelligence as collected schemas and primary units of instruction that are used to arrange my past experiences. Jean Piaget pointed out that factors like schemas, assimilation, accommodation, and equilibration influenced how children grow as they get to learn. A schema includes the mental organs and physical actions of knowledge and the process of obtaining, understanding and knowing that knowledge. Assimilation involves taking in new information in to the already existing schema while accommodation consists of altering and adapting further information from the existing schemas. Equilibration is the balance between assimilation and accommodation. Through the Piaget Theory, we get introduced to four cognitive developmental stages, grouped with different ages. These stages are Sensorimotor stage (infancy)- Birth to 2 years, Pre-operational stage (toddlerhood and early childhood)- 2 to 4 years, concrete operational stage (elementary and early adolescence)- 7 to 11 years and formal operational stage (adolescence and adulthood)- 11 years and above.

The Lev Vygotsky theory of social-cultural control is much applicable because my cultural background has had a significant impact on my cognitive development. For instance, the environment from which I have constructed knowledge is more the product of people in it together with the ideas or objects that have been developed with time. From my cognitive development, I would more agree with Vygotsky because I have learned a lot from social interactions. For instance, my parents have been my first educator because they have been my role models and have encouraged me in being successful. I feel that Vygotsky’s theory has had a lot of influence in my early years since I have developed better with adult influences or more able peers. Although Piaget had strong points when it comes to cognitive development, I would disagree that youngsters only learn as they develop through the four stages because I feel it is a more holistic process (Crain, 2015). However, I agree with Vygotsky because my social and cultural has had a stronger influence on my development. According to this theory, abstract thinking is developed by language and schooling, and it could not develop on its own.


Human development is termed to be a lifelong process starting conception and extending to death. For instance, every moment of man’s life is a state of personal evolution. For instance, physical changes mostly drive the process of development because our cognitive abilities advance and decline in response to childhood brain growth and decreased function in old age. Consequently, psychosocial development is mainly influenced by physical growth because our changing body together with the brain as well as the environment shapes our identity and our relationship with other people. The importance, of cognitive, psychosocial and physical development becomes apparent if an individual does not successfully understand one or more of the developmental stages.



Crain, W. (2015). Theories of Development: Concepts and Applications: Concepts and Applications. Psychology Press.

Greenberg, G., & Partridge, T. (2010). Biology, evolution, and psychological development. Cognition, biology, and methods across the lifespan1, 115-148. Retrieved from:

Neisser, U. (2014). Cognitive psychology: Classic edition. Psychology Press.

Parker, I. (2014). Psychology after psychoanalysis: Psychosocial studies and beyond. Routledge.

Seligman, M. E., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). Positive psychology: An introduction. In Flow and the foundations of positive psychology (pp. 279-298). Springer, Dordrecht.

Zentall, T. R., & Galef Jr, B. G. (Eds.). (2013). Social learning: Psychological and biological perspectives. Psychology Press.