Human development, especially in adolescents entail three processes which include biological, psychological and social. A biopsychosocial model for human development explains what happens in each process during growth. The natural process involves the stage of puberty, and mental development includes adolescent, egocentrism and identity development. On the other hand, conventional methods include peer pressure and pressure to conform.
Puberty, which is a biological process in human development include physical changes during adolescence. During this period, a child’s body undergoes changes enabling it to mature into an adult body capable of being sexually productive. The transition from childhood to adulthood takes place slowly over some time. Puberty starts between eight years of age to about age fourteen (Cameron et al. pp.106). Due to the uniqueness in an individual’s body, puberty takes place differently in each person at their own pace. Some of the changes that occur to our bodies during adolescence include pimples on the face and growth of hair under the armpit and around the genitals. However, some changes are specific to either males or females. For example, in men, there is the enlargement of private parts, broadening of chest and shoulder, the growth of hair on the chest and legs and deepening of the voice. In women, changes include breasts getting more prominent and widening of hips.
Psychological processes include the emotional and cognitive development of human beings. Adolescents develop reasoning skills and become capable of making a rational judgment (Cameron et al. pp.104). During this process of evolution, adolescents develop a sense of self-identity where they ask themselves questions about who they are and what they want to be in the future. Increasing self-identity comes with growing concern about other people’s opinions about them. Adolescents also develop e sense of egocentrism where they believe they are the center of attention. Egocentrism is less prominent in adulthood, but, there are cases when egocentric behaviors are noticed in adulthood indicating that egocentrism is a lifelong development that never ends. Adults are less egocentric compared to children; therefore, it is evident that traces of egocentric behaviors are noticed in adulthood showing that it is a psychological development that sometimes continues into adulthood and probably never achieves completion.
The social process during human development, on the other hand, include peer pressure and pressure to conform to adolescents. Peer pressure involves adolescents trying to fit into a particular group of peers (Delay et al. pp.955). Adolescents, therefore, have to do things that they usually would not do to please their peers and fit into that specific group of peers. They are then accepted into those particular groups by their peers. Peers pressure influences the way a person dresses, activities one get involved in, the music one listens to, one’s decision about using drugs, who they date and who they are friends with.
The social process of human development also brings about the pressure to conform to the ones surrounding environment. It involves a change in belief or behavior to fit in with a group. It includes real and imagined pressure, imagined pressure affects how one feels he or she is expected to do or be in society. Real pressure, on the other hand, refers to physical changes in the community.
The biopsychosocial model, therefore, explains the biological, psychological and social
changes that one undergo in his or her lifespan. Some of these changes stop at childhood while some go up to adulthood. Therefore, human development goes on in immature stages, and some even continue throughout one’s lifespan.
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