Article Title: Including Students With Severe Disabilities in All Levels of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support.
Authors of the Article: Leannes S. Hawken and Robert E. O’Neill
Name of the Journal: Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities
Volume Number: 31
Issue Number: 1
Year of Publication: 2006
Publisher: TASH Publishing
Summary of the Strategies Used in the Article
The article presents various approaches that can be used in assisting students with intellectual disabilities in a classroom or school situation. Under normal circumstances, there always exist these kinds of students who find it very difficult to understand the taught concepts in class. It, therefore, goes that different individuals have varied cognitive abilities, which affects the rate of human understanding. The article also clearly presents various strategies that can be used by teachers in a given school setting. The report also reviews the literature of SWPBS, which as the information about the involvement of students with severe learning disabilities. Various concepts presented by different intellects have been used in the explanation of the PBS, which has been possible through conducting several research projects on the topic (Hawken, L.S. and O’Neill, R.E., 2006, p.47). The approach is, however, focused on finding the most applicable strategies that can be used to assist these students with severe learning disabilities. The PBS is an inclusive strategy that has concentrated on diverting the attention of communities from intrusive and aversive processes to assessment-based procedures aimed at identifying significant problems and designing the appropriate solutions for the issues identified.
One of the most important aims of the PBS is to change the overall lifestyle of these students with disabilities, rather than just reducing the problem behaviour. Besides, the approach is designed to find the most appropriate method for solving the identified problems. Under this suggestion, the main aim of the PBS is to modify environmental factors to assist with the correction of the behaviours, rather than using rewards and punishments as the behaviour-modification factors. Furthermore, the approach proposes an intervention that is dependent on a functional assessment plan, aimed at achieving the best correctional approach. Lastly, PBS has designed a way of teaching pro-social skills to help with replacing behaviour problems. Example of primary prevention strategies explained in the article include implementing BPS in schools, adjusting secondary prevention strategies to target more victims, and tertiary strategies also to cater to several students, about 5%.
Reflection Based on the Article
Intellectual disability is a common factor that is typically experienced in a school setting. However, controlling the problem calls for a thorough analysis of its cause origin. Intellectual disability can be said to be genetic, as this is the main factor that may result in the problem. Psychologically, mental development is usually affected by two factors, which forms nature-nurture controversy. After reading the article, I have realised that one of the most important aims of the PBS is to change the overall lifestyle of these students with disabilities, rather than just reducing the problem behaviour. Besides, the approach is designed to find the most appropriate method for solving the identified problems. Under this suggestion, the main aim of the PBS is to modify environmental factors to assist with the correction of the behaviours, rather than using rewards and punishments as the behaviour-modification factors.
I agree with the application of the strategies for controlling intellectual disabilities presented in the article. Students suffering from mental disabilities should be assisted using specific teaching strategies such as the heuristic approach, which concentrates on instilling knowledge step-wise depending on the student’s psychic abilities. The heuristic approach of teaching is a learner-based approach that includes teaching methods such as group discussion, step-by-step demonstration, and procedural tackling of concepts through continuous interaction between the teachers and the learners. The procedure is appropriate in helping the students with intellectual disabilities since; they will have ample time to grasp whichever concept presented to them.
Article Title: An Evaluation of an Intervention Sequence Outline in Positive Behavior Support for People with Autism and Severe Escape-Motivated Challenging Behavior.
Authors of the Article: Brian McClean & Ian Grey
Name of the Journal: Journal of Intellectual & Development Disability
Volume Number: 37
Issue Number: 3
Year of Publication: 2012
Publisher: Informer Healthcare
Summary of the Strategies Used in the Article
The article has presented the role of positive behaviour as emphasising on the influence of contextual variables to promote active involvement in various activities towards promoting quality life. The case study designed in the article investigated how severe behaviours can be modified to form improved mental health and quality life. There are, however, specific strategies that have been used in the article for enhancing positive behaviour among students and members of a community as a whole. It is also important to note that severe behaviour such as self-injury can affect the quality of life within an individual (McClean, B. and Grey, I., 2012, p.210). The positive behaviour approach is capable of annulling the effects of severe behaviour among individuals and thereby, promoting quality life. However, the article presents essential information about the role played by environmental factors in controlling the cruel behaviour among individuals. The development of undesired behaviours among individuals is connected to the effects of unpleasant environmental conditions triggering adverse reactions. Therefore, using the positive behaviour approach would assist in cancelling the impact of adverse environmental factors on behaviour.
The first important strategy used by the positive behaviour approach concentrates on improving a person’s life, rather than reducing the challenging behaviours. In other words, the plan puts more concern on the outcomes rather than the actions undertaken to achieve the results. Also, the strategies are aims at providing a life-span perspective that would assist in solving challenging behaviours for a long time. The approach also puts a close concern with economic validity, which implies promoting practices that would eventually result in the conservation of the ecosystem for the benefits of humanity. On the other hand, the strategies emphasise the consideration of social validity, which aims at promoting positive relationship behaviours among individuals.
Reflection Based on the Article
The ideas presented in the article are arguably valid because they provide a detailed approach to ensuring challenging behaviours is modified. The challenging behaviours among societal members frequently result in poor lifestyle, which may lead to miserable lives among human beings. I, therefore, see it valid and applicable to use the positive behaviour approach in ensuring members from a common locality relate peacefully with one another and with their environment. Basing my arguments on the roles of climate on human behaviour, and connecting it to the ideas presented in the article, it is true that ecology plays a vital role in determining the types of behaviours exhibited by individuals from a given locality. Environmental influence on human behaviour is strong, especially during childhood. A child would grow, adapting to the different ecological; conditions they are exposed to in the particular surrounding. Favourable environmental conditions would results in positive behaviours among individuals while negative ones would lead to behavioural challenges.
However, it is clear that applying appropriate strategies such as positive behaviour approach can significantly assist with reducing the challenging behaviours among different people. In doing so, it is essential to reconsider some of the factors that would determine the likelihood of achieving the expected results. First, stakeholders to the positive behaviour approach should ensure that the strategy aims at providing a positive outcome, which may be reflected in the improved quality life among the individuals involved. Also, the approach should aim at promoting positive values such as love for the environment since; ecological conservation forms the basis of life improvement. Lastly, the stakeholders should ensure that every individual with challenging behaviors is helped on how to develop social validity by building a positive relationship with their fellows.
Hawken, L.S. and O’Neill, R.E., 2006. Including students with severe disabilities in all levels of school-wide positive behaviour support. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 31(1), pp.46-53.
McClean, B. and Grey, I., 2012. An evaluation of an intervention sequence outline in positive behaviour support for people with autism and severe escape-motivated challenging behaviour. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 37(3), pp.209-220.