In the recent past, terrorism has increased significantly as the terror groups continue to change their tactics as a way of ensuring that they effectively achieve their missions. Unlike in the past, and most of the terror-related activities are resulting in massive destruction of properties and deaths of people. Besides, a majority of these groups are also pretending to be pursuing their known goals, but they aim to bring damages across the globe. As the collaboration between terror groups, the states and other officials WMD departments increase, there is a need for urgent decision to improve deterrent measures from acquiring the weapons. In this study, there is a survey within the Intelligence Organization to find out the best steps that can be taken to prevent terrorists from acquiring WMD. The involved program managers and heads of the department components who gave different perspectives. With 100 percent feedback rate, the following measures were extracted: Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, and Repository of Information Provided by the Nuclear-Weapon States, and Export Controls.
Keywords: Nuclear Weapons, Weapons of Mass Destruction, terrorism, states, and treaty.
The methodology section was intended to fulfil the objectives of the research by defining the various ways that can be used to prevent terrorists from acquiring Weapons of Mass Destruction. The study involved surveying various Intelligence and security organizations. The motive of the survey was to determine the validity, effectiveness, and efficiency of the multiple ways of preventing terrorists from acquiring Weapons of Mass Destruction. This section exclusive defines the entire process through which these components were accessed, their various responses, and contribution towards facilitating limited access to Weapons of Mass Destruction. The section entails research design, defining population, data collection, procedure, and analysis.
The research design involved a survey where the survey instrument that was skillfully prepared was used to gather for data from the various securities departmental components. The specially designed survey composed of elements relevant to the Intelligence and security organizations identified. The survey had multiple levels of items that were contained to ensure that the research could precisely define the validity, effectiveness, and the efficiency of the various ways Weapon of Mass Destruction could be kept away from the hands of terrorists. Thus, the inclusions of the survey were the checklist of multiple items, rating scale, and some open-ended questions that were meant to get views and recommendations from these departmental components. Thus, the survey to some extent allowed the respondent in this research to elaborate on where and when they desired or required. All the survey contents were approved before they were finally presented to the different heads of these departmental components.
The use of the elaborate survey in this research intended at keeping the entire process simple, precise, and achieves to ensure the accuracy was achieved amidst the security threats following the high presence of WMD among terrorists. The various responses were then extracted and the data analyzed intensively. The aim was to extract common themes that could help the security agencies locally and internationally on combating for Chemical, Biological, Radiology, and Nuclear (CBRN) attacks. Though the approved survey instrument appeared user-friendly especially to the respondents, it was indeed difficult when it came to manually codifying results showing common themes as compared to using automated measurements. Using automated result measurements that are sophisticated allows the accuracy of the data analysis and saves the labor intensiveness of the researcher. Survey research that is deemed quality must typically acquire information about various organizations regarding their past performances, experiences, characteristics, attitudes, and opinions. Thus, the survey instrument used in this research paid attention to multiple concerns, ideas, and thoughts of the departmental security components. The intention was to have an all-inclusive survey instrument that would ensure that effective and efficient ways redefined to company the deadly world security threat of Weapons of Mass Destruction.
The research involved 20 participants most who were program managers and heads of departmental components within the Intelligence Organization. This number of the respondents is a representation of on 20 percent of the entire security team in the country, but the researcher found the sample significant enough to reflect the ideas of the security team. The program managers represent various intelligence agencies that share technical security information that is vital in policymaking. The program’s managers are in charge of multiple agencies which include; Central Intelligence Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Justice, and National Security Agency among others. Similar, the heads of the departmental components have vast knowledge in matters of security and have all it takes to ensure that proper measures are put in place for countries various states to ensure that Weapons of Mass Destruction does not get in the hands of the terrorists. Thus, having their responses is even more pertinent when combined with the fact that these participants are at the center of facilitating security in the country. The number of 20 participants, in this case, is substantial enough in getting to understand the ways WMD can be kept out of the hands of terrorists.
This section involved the actual implementation of the survey instrument in gathering the required information. Data collection involved both the primary data and secondary data. Primary data was collected through the survey instrument that was administered to the program managers for various intelligence and security agencies and the heads of the departmental components. Due to the nature of the work the participants engage in, the survey was sent to them via email since it was impossible for the researcher to access all the respondents. The survey was sent along with special instructions and guidance on how the participants were to respond to them. The respondents filled the surveys as supplied to them and sent them back to the researcher. All the survey were kept anonymous to ensure the confidentiality of the participants. Keeping the responses anonymous from the respondents helps to reduce the issue of biasness in research. Biasness can be defined as a condition or influence that aims at distorting the real content or message in data. The most encouraging thing about data collection was the response rate of the participants. All the 20 participants returned their survey to the researcher via the same email address. Thus, the percent response was 100 percent.
On the other hand, secondary data involved looking for information from the various documents that had already been written. The considered sources involved those with information about the Chemical, Biological, Radiology, and Nuclear with specific reference to the Weapons of Mass Destruction. Specifically, the most substantial material contained information about the acquisition of these weapons, their impacts, and how this could be limited. Some of these sources were reports from various security departments both at the federal and state levels and reports containing various security policies among the rest. Some learning materials on national security were considered for information.
Following the nature of the study and the technicalities of the respondents, the procedure that was followed for the data collection was a formal and professional one. The initial step involved seeking consent from the institutional relevant department of political science of the intention to research this nature. This was followed by writing to the U.S Intelligence Organization to request the initial consent that would make the research easy to engage the participants who represented lower organizations. However, a previous visit was made to the respective offices of the potential organization to seek personal consent and arrangement on logistical matters involving privacy of the information and mode of survey administration among other important matters. This was followed by data collection that involved survey administration and analysis.
Under the analysis, qualitative analysis seemed more suitable in this case since the data collection involved responses that involved perspectives of the participants. At a small extent, quantitative analysis was involved when examining the ratings of the various options as given by the respondents. However, qualitative analysis played a crucial role in ensuring that most preferred perspectives were given priority during the data analysis process. Ultimately, the research could be able to settle on specific factors that were most effective and efficient.
The findings of the survey are based on the responses from the questions the participants were subjected to. Various responses were provided but could be summarized into the main points as indicated in the tables below. They were also categorized into multiple groups based on the common themes to give out the precise meaning. The responses were identified in terms of the measures to prevent the terrorists from acquiring the Weapon of Mass Destruction.
Main measures identified
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 20
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 19
Repository of Information Provided by the Nuclear-Weapon States
The findings above indicate the most important measures that the participants found applicable in reducing the chances of terrorists from acquiring these weapons. In almost all the mentions measures, more than 15 respondents supported them. Control export was the list preferred by 17 respondents.
Current effectiveness of measures as used
Measures 1 2 3 4 5 Mean
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
Repository of Information Provided by the Nuclear-Weapon States
The above table shows the rating scale with the different rating values indicated by the respondents regarding how effective the measures are when used. The mean column expresses the mean value of the ratings. Nuclear non-proliferation treaty seems the most effective measure to combat terrorist possession of Weapon of Mass Destruction.
Measures Frequency Percentage %
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 19 95
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 18 90
Repository of Information Provided by Nuclear-Weapon States
In the above table is the compliance level as indicated by the participants. The majority indicated that many states have complied with the nuclear non-proliferation Treaty as compared to export controls.
The analysis section examines the findings and tries to examine why the program managers of intelligence agencies and departmental components heads indicated these responses. All the mentioned measures can assist states in preventing the acquisition of Weapons of Destruction by terrorists. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty is a landmark of international treaty allows the cooperative use of nuclear energy and ensure that there is complete nuclear disarmament by countries. Nuclear weapon states under this treat have the role of ensuring that they carry out disarmament and no proliferation of nuclear weapons that are dangerous is allowed to go on. Elsewhere, the measure of Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones ensures that any zone that is composed of particular states as recognized by the General Assembly of the United Nations stays free and in the absence of the nuclear weapons that may be used for harmful purposes. Thus, states within the marked zones are not allowed to have nuclear weapons which will also help keep off these weapons from being accessed by the terrorists.
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty is an agreement amongst the states that prohibits any country to carry out the test for nuclear weapons. The measure is an effective way to ensure that terrorists do not get accessed to these deadly weapons since testing nuclear weapons gives an excellent opportunity for terrorists to reach the weapons. The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in many cases is enabled through the exports where many manufacturing countries tend to export the same weapons to other countries. Thus, through export control, states fight it hard to transport these deadly weapons to friendly or enemy countries for damage. However, it is an effective way to ensure that terrorists do not get an opportunity to access these deadly weapons when in transit through hijacking the nuclear-loaded vehicles.
Considering the effectiveness levels of each of these measures and how countries have compliant with these measures, it is evident that these measures cannot achieve optimum results. Nuclear non-proliferation treaty seems to be the most effective measures to curb terrorists from acquiring these dangerous weapons. This is attributed to the fact that under this treat, member states are completely barred from the proliferation of the weapons which keeps them entirely away from being accessed. Unlike the exports control which seems less effective since even in the absence of export, the countries still produce dangerous weapons and terrorists can smuggle them out of the manufacturing countries. On compliance, almost all the UN member states have complied with the Nuclear non-proliferation treaty as the General Assembly has been insisting on this treaty since it has been found the most effective. The UN believes that if countries can completely stop the proliferation of nuclear weapons, then no terrorist will access them since they have no power and resources to produce them.
From the findings of the study, it is evident that even with the measures mentioned above, no measures have been found effective or achieving 100 percent compliance rate as expected. Thus, there is a likelihood that with the loopholes, terrorists may find their ways of acquiring Weapons of Mass Destruction. Hence there is a need for further measures to ensure these chances are minimized. The first thing the United Nations should do is to bring all different weapons under the same rule unlike what currently happens that strict measures are only taken against nuclear weapons. In return, non-nuclear weapons are left without close watch; thus perpetrators of nuclear weapons find easy time to sneak in with these deadly weapons. Finally, the terrorists get access to them. Secondly, all the treaties aimed at stopping the proliferation of nuclear weapons should be binding everywhere but not leaving out some countries like currently where North Korea, Pakistan, and India among others have refused to be part of the treaties. Finally is that UN should stop punishing those countries that make these weapons but rather encourage them to comply with agreements.
It is evident that the actions of terrorism have increased significantly in the recent past. Terror groups are increasingly changing their tactics as a way of ensuring that they effectively achieve their missions. Their motives have also improved as well. Unlike in the past, and most of the terror-related activities are resulting in massive destruction of properties and deaths of people. Besides, a majority of these groups are also pretending to be pursuing their known goals, but they aim to bring damages across the globe. Increased collaboration between the groups and states and other officials WND departments have also been experienced creating the urgency to improve deterrent measures from acquiring the weapons. Sarin is one element of CBRN WMD that if obtained by terrorists for their activities can cause severe and permanent damage. The study involved the survey in the Intelligence Organization where program managers and the heads of department components were involved. The study making use of the 100 percent feedback rate and knowledge acquired by the respondents in the field of security was able to make findings successfully. Some of the common measures found include; Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, Repository of Information Provided by the Nuclear-Weapon States, and Export Controls. The respondents indicated that these measures have the capability of preventing terrorists from acquiring Weapons of Mass Destruction though their effectiveness differs. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty was indicated the most effective while export control was found the least as it provides various loopholes for terrorists to access these weapons.