Informal fallacies

Informal fallacies

Argument #1

Dr. David Thompson (Chief Psychiatrist at Victoria Hospital) testified before the Congress that excessive and continued consumption of alcohol does not cause Liver Cirrhosis. Therefore in view of Dr. David expertise, we can conclude that excessive and continued consumption of beer does not cause liver cirrhosis.

Argument #2

The fate of the universe is unknown. Scientists have been unable to conclusively elaborate on how the earth came into place and how it will end. They do know that one time Universe will come to an end, but no one knows how. For this reason, we can conclude that the Universe will one-day meltdown like stars and in this way, life will end.



The first argument Communists fallacy of appeal to Unqualified authority. The conclusion in this argument deals with food science and requires a qualified opinion from a physician in either food science of human health. From the premises, Dr. David Thompson is a Psychiatric who should have expertise in mental health and not issues to deal with consumption like in the case wit bear. Therefore this argument offers a reference from an authority that lacks credibility hence unqualified. For this reason, the argument commits an appeal to unqualified authority.


From the second argument, it’s true that scientists know that the earth will come to an end, but they have been unable to discover how this will come to happen conclusively. Nothing has been proved so far about the end of life in the universe. However, the conclusion makes a definite assertion that the earth will end through melting, of which there is no scientific proof or whatsoever about the ground coming to an end through melting. This argument, therefore, commits an appeal to ignorance as it involves something that is not yet proved.