Lab field trip

The lab field trip was carried out on 11/042019.this article will depict and translate information gathered on this specific day. The report will comprise of three particular parts. The first segment which is this part will be a presentation of location, stratigraphy, and depiction of attributes of two environments. The second part will be a summary of information gathered on the lab field trip while the last piece of the paper will be a translation of the information collected in Section two. With the research done, we will understand that the information that will be displayed from the field lab outing will coordinate one of the two environments that will be examined in the third section of this essay. Information was gathered in one mile West of Newport, Ohio over the 37-mile marker of State Route 7. The outcrop is situated on the north side of the interstate, and it disregards the Ohio River. As per a geological guide, the land is located in Belmont, West Virginia-Ohio. NW ¼ of NW ¼ of segment 33, Township 1 North, Range 6 West, Newport Township, Washington County, Ohio (Collins and Smith. Pg, 125).in this paper

The rocks discovered on the outcrop are from the Pennsylvanian time frame. This is where the Eastern United States was encountering orogeny in the Appalachian Mobile belt within the meeting of Pangea. At this period there was enduring of mountains which brought about an overflowed coastal plains with winding rivers that tend to meander as well as tropical marsh. Marine limestone and deltaic shale with sandstones were kept. Layers that were deposited in this area were made out of mudstone and shale, silty sandstones, coal, sandstone, and fossiliferous limestone. The strata that are presented have a place with the Pennsylvanian Cone augh Group. The lime was preserved because of the marine proclamation, and coal was collected because of physical deposition while sandstone and shale deposited because of marine or non-marine deposition.

According to the information provided regarding the characteristics of a point bar sequencing and prograding delta grouping, we will utilize two sites one on wandering streams and the second one on deltas. These two sites will be recorded toward the ends of this Essay. A meandering stream is a separate channel that winds snakelike through a given valley. At the point when water courses through the stream, it is quicker on the external around the bends than in the inward corners. Therefore, making an erosional surface towards the internal part which is known as the cut bank erosion process as erosion happens on the external surface and point bar deposition when deposition occurs in the interior segments of the stream. Winds change their directions because of erosion sideways, and a slight scraped spot downstream and fining upwards. This is brought about by the multiplication of the point bar bringing about a scoured surface with dynamically, progressively, fine sand and mud DEPOSITS. However, the floodplains are loaded up with shale. Therefore Winding waterways can be subdivided into five classes. They include sandy rivers without mud or rock, muddy, beautiful grained stream, gravelly sand bed rivers, and rock overwhelmed streams.

Deltas are surroundings made up of gradational of both the coastal and fluvial backgrounds. Deltas are shaped where streams enter an ocean, lake or sea and make some thick deposit. This store might frame bulges. An unexpected reduction in the pace of the waterway causes the dregs load. The further the navigation goes into the permanent water body, the more incredible it moves toward becoming. This is brought about by progradation of the delta that tends to cause exceptionally fine prodelta silt at the base and coarser dregs above.


The primary layer is described by grayish red silt together with fossils and fossiliferous materials. The second later is depicted by Bituminous which is made out of coal, dark iron oxide, and light straining. Marine condition secured the third layer while the fourth layer was formed out of coral, mudstones, and rockiopods. Thickness five was equivalent to layer three with a marine domain, however with less shale, less mud, and less limestone, it equally contained CaC03 coral fossiliferous. Layer six was described by dim dark sediment, dirt, and shake. In this layer, there were no fossils without hesitation. The seventh layer had a great deal to offer since it had siltstones, medium dim silty-shale, siltstones layers and solidifications of fine sandstones. The eighth layer was comprised of light dark sandy residue, shale rotating with an all the more settling of female horse sand. Level 9 was equivalent to layer four which is described by corals, mudstone and rockopoids. Thickness 10 was equal to tier 7 with sand and shale while later 11 was equivalent to layer 8 with light dim sandy residue and shake. Layer 12 had its based scoured, with bright dark greenish sandstones. The central layer to the fourth layer is arranged under the class of lead earthbound’s surroundings. While the seventh to the twelfth layer is under delta or transitional layers. The rest of the portions are arranged under the marine condition

Section 3

Strata and rocks were observed repeatedly from the information provided previously. The maximum levels similarity is found in layer four, and layer nine where the materials discovered incorporate corals, mudstone and rockopoids. These layers, therefore, are from various classifications; one is a Delta or physical layer while the other is a lead layer. The other similarity is found in the seventh and tenth layer. These layers have sand and shale with more sand than the rock.


The layers are isolated into various cycles. They are backward cycles that are thick layers of sand and dirt and transgressive sequences that are comprised of marine residue like coal — these rotating layers structure cyclothem which will be talked about later in the essay. Layers 10 to 12 have a backward cycle; at that point layer 9 has a transgressive sequence pursued by portion 5 – 8 with a reverse period. The entire outcrop with the redundancy is a prograding delta arrangement. This is because it has to exchange regression and transgressing cycles. Cycles of thick and little residue. Prograding deltas are comprised of coarsening progressions upward. The progradation rates profoundly rely upon residue supply and the profundity of water. The central progradational delta therefor will, subsequently, show a change from prodelta seaward muds and through silty to sandy deposits. This implies the delta top is comprised of channel sands and delta plain muds, trailed by sand bars at the delta mouth lastly marine rack deposits. This can be differentiated by the meandering waterway grouping where there is a loose rock to medium sand in the erosional based, trailed by coarse to medium sand on the channel going downwards. This is then hunted by a medium to fine sand on the point bar as deposition happens in the flood fields together with the clay soil, mud splits and root follows.

A cyclothem is a rotating stratigraphic division of non-marine and marine silt. In some cases, cyclothems are interbedded with coals appear. However, it infrequently happens so. They were first found and named by a European geologist who worked in coal bowls. He worked in the Carboniferous and the Permian time frame. Cyclothems are comprised of a rehashed arrangement of sandstones which lays on erosional surfaces and passes upwards to pelites which are better grains of sandstones. This is then secured at the top with coal. Cyclothems are said to have framed because of marine transgressions and relapses as identified with ice sheets development rot (Collins and Smith, pg 132).

As indicated by my information, there was a two cyclothem period. The exchanging layers of relapses demonstrate this on layer 10 to 12, marine transgressions on sheet nine. They were trailed by another relapse period from layer 7 to layer 8. As referenced previously, Cyclothems were shaped between the Carboniferous time frame and different climatic conditions as described in this period. Center Carboniferous period was hot and damp which contributed an immense development of earthbound plants. In any case, the later Carboniferous time frame was comprised of cooler and drier atmosphere with temperatures going as low as 10 degrees. In West Virginia, the environment between the time of warm and cold atmospheres prompted some elaborate system of meandering rivers and deltas together with coal swamps. These marshes had a rehashed stratigraphic dimension of coal, layers of fluvial rocks like shale and sandstones. At the deltas, were dark shales and limestones exactly at the shores.