Psychologists regard the process of development in humans as multidimensional, multidirectional, and contextual. In effect, it makes it difficult to study the complex growth features in people. Simply put, developments are milestones within which considerable achievements are contained (Green &Piel, 2015). In every phase, a person builds on new skills and improves on previous developmental achievements, making it cumulative. Several theories from a multi-direction perspective describe developmental stages, and they include psychosocial, behavioral, biopsychosocial, cognitive development, psychoanalytic, and ecological system approaches. An understanding of the various theories illuminates the complex growth stages which implicate the way humans are equipped at each stage with specific skills and tasks(Green &Piel, 2015 ). Accordingly, the analysis of some of the theories including behavioral theory, developmental theory, and psychological theory is vital to comprehend the levels of achievement of the interviewee chosen for the present interview.
Review on Human Development Theories
Cognitive Development Theory
The theory addresses the role of conscious thought and one’s ability to process, store, retrieve and analyze use of information. Each developmental stage in a human growth phase has different cognitive requirements. According to Piaget’s theory of Cognitive Theory Development, humans can gather information and organize it based on the processes of change(Green &Piel, 2015). He believed that they are born with basic mental structure, creating room for subsequent learning and knowledge adoption. For example, infants who encounter a dog for the first time will engage their olfactory, visual, and audio skills to record information about a dog. Piaget contends that the information is then linked to a particular “schema” within which the child will forever recognize the aspects as ‘dog.’ As children continue to grow, they can continuously distinguish between aspects based on features such as the distinction between a mother and father(Green &Piel, 2015). In this developmental theory, a child has to undergo different developmental stages that require diverse abilities and mannerisms to use the information.
Biological Development Theory
The theory suggests that humans are a consequence of genetics and physiology. It is the only approach that examines aspects of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors from a biological standpoint. The biopsychosocial theory expounds on the biological, psychological, and social systems in a human’s life. Numerous interacting processes influence these aspects, such as internal and external variables, for example, personality traits and bodily processes. Each action, feeling or behavior is based on a biological response embedded in every person (Capuzzi & Stauffer, 2016). They are based on the following elements, including physiology whereby the nervous system and the hormones work based on brain functions and the way the changes, affecting behavior. In addition, biological theories impact on inheritance. Children inherit certain aspects from their parents (genetics)(Capuzzi & Stauffer, 2016). For instance, psychologists indicate that children with high cognition and intelligence inherit these traits from their parents.
Psychosocial Development Theory
According to biological theories, human development entails eight stages, including people’s ability to grow or fail to develop capabilities and principles that permit them to be productive and satisfied members of the social order. Accordingly, these phases include initiative or guilt, identity, and identity crisis, intimacy and isolation as well as integrity and despair. Indeed, each stage is vital as it connects a person’s biological aspect with his or her cognitive development (Johnson et al., 2015). In the psychosocial development theory, psychologists can learn the mental aspects of individuals to understand its significance in the broader community.
Adolescent Life Stage
In this current paper, comprehending the theories mentioned is crucial to know whether, at each developmental phase, a person exhibits or does not show the necessary skills and abilities described. In the adolescent stage, several developmental tasks are required for a child to be considered ordinary during this phase (Berenbaum, Beltz& Corley, 2015). The different developmental tasks for such individuals include learning how to cope with others, especially people of opposite sex, accepting one’s physical appearances and body, and ensuring that they maintain their wellbeing. Moreover, people become self-sufficient, can make decisions about their lives and future concepts, and prepare themselves for the career of their choice or job market. Furthermore, an adolescent should become socially responsible. The present interviewee exhibits the majority of the developmental tasks required in this developmental phase.
Background of Interviewee
The individual used for the case study is a seventeen-year-old girl. She exhibits elevated signs of drug abuse, including marijuana, alcohol addiction, and an inability to maintain health standards. As a result, it makes the person unappreciative. The reason the girl was selected was due to her elemental characteristics of being temperamental, indecisive and unaware of her body changes, especially from a biological aspect. This is different from the writer, as he is a boy and cannot articulate what occurs from a girl’s perspective. The interviewee illuminates the differences in growth stages owing to the symbolic and theoretical differences between sexes during adolescence.
From a developmental perspective, an adolescent girl should understand the changes that occur in her body. She should articulate her growth to womanhood. Conversely, boys can understand their manhood transition. However, in this case, the interviewee does not know some concepts about biological changes. According to human developmental theories, an adolescent is required to accept one’s body by exercising, having proper nutrition, exercise, disease prevention, and other health practices(Berenbaum, Beltz& Corley, 2015). Consequently, it affects the teenager’s attitudes, affection towards others, and her ability to have an outlook on life. The latter is regarded as the most critical developmental task in the adolescent stage. Given that, the interviewer should assess her biological and psychological aspects of development to understand the difference in growth concepts.
In the development phase of an adolescent, an adolescent should develop affection for their parents without dependending on them and respect older adults. In this case, the interviewee respects those around her. Notably, biological characteristics can either be inherited or environmentally acquired. According to the biological theory, a person’s feeling and responses are based on biological reactions responsible for the attitudes in adolescents. The attitudes of the interviewee are positive towards strangers but negative towards her parents (Berenbaum, Beltz& Corley, 2015). It may be common in teenagers as they seek to rebel against the normalcy of routines experienced in infancy and middle-level child development.
Moreover, in adolescence, aspects of proper nutrition and exercise are regarded as pivotal in safeguarding a healthy future. Due to social pressures, the interviewee conforms to social standards whereby girls her age consume protein-based diets to minimize pot-belly phenomenon or gain weight. To some extent, nutritionists recommend protein-based diets, but a developing girl should take a balanced diet meal and engage in sports activities. The interviewee states that she is an active sports player who participates in soccer, basketball, and hockey. However, her inability to consume balanced diets may have serious consequences, such as reduced energy levels, which she indicated that she often feels hungry most of the time.
Psychological Human Development
According to psychological theories, an adolescent undergoes differential growth stages when it comes to mental development which has a direct effect on their social comprehension. The developmental tasks for adolescents include accepting physical changes. As the human body changes, especially in girls, much can be confusing and mind boggling at the same time(Beauchaine& Hinshaw, 2017). The puberty phase is considered more engaging in girls than in boys. In this context, the interviewee admits that she is unable sometimes to understand her body changes. For example, at times she has acne and pimples on her face. The idea that at one point her face is smooth then suddenly, “riddled with pimples” sends her into a frantic hiding mode.
Another developmental phase in sociology is building a circle of friends. According to psychological theories, an adolescent or any human may grapple with identity or identity crisis. Often, it depends on the friends a person associates within adolescence. Prior to puberty, parental influences or school determines a child’s colleagues. However, during adolescence, a person is more aware of their surrounding are deliberately choose their friends(Beauchaine& Hinshaw, 2017). In some cases, there are frequent changes in friends within specific periods which is a part based on peer pressure. According to the interview, the interviewee indicates that she is constantly meeting with a particular type of friends which she considers as engaging or indulging. As a result, it affects her intimate relationships from as her friends influence the boys she dates. At this stage, adolescence is depicted by first intimate experiences, and the interviewee acknowledges that she is more engaged with experimental factors of sexuality with the opposite sex and with her friends to understand what is going on biologically and psychologically(Beauchaine& Hinshaw, 2017). As a result, she develops her sense of comprehension and view of the world which can sometimes be contradictory to her parents and her teachers.
Conclusion: Reflection on Interview
Human developmental theories have made it easier for people to understand what is necessary for each developmental phase. The adolescent developmental stage is unique and may have varied comprehension between opposite genders. In this case, the paper has illustrated the biological and psychological growth aspects when it comes to girls. In summary, exploration and cognition of changes characterize adolescence.
Beauchaine, T. P., & Hinshaw, S. P. (Eds.). (2017). Child and adolescent psychopathology. John Wiley & Sons.
Berenbaum, S. A., Beltz, A. M., & Corley, R. (2015). The importance of puberty for adolescent development: conceptualization and measurement. In Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 48, pp. 53-92). JAI.
Capuzzi, D., & Stauffer, M. D. (2016). Counseling and psychotherapy: Theories and interventions. John Wiley & Sons.
Green, M. G., &Piel, J. A. (2015). Theories of human development: A comparative approach. Psychology Press.
Johnson, S. K., Hilliard, L. J., Hershberg, R. M., & Lerner, R. M. (2015). Concepts and Theories of Human Development. In Developmental Science (pp. 11-50). Psychology Press.
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