Lisa’s PBIP Case Study

Lisa’s PBIP Case Study

Question 1

Lisa tends to spit at classroom staff while standing at the top of the slide. On other occasions, she will also spit on other children that seem to interfere with her activities. Lisa spits at the teachers and staff 4 times out of 9 classroom transitions daily and 12 times out of 15 recess periods a week. She also spits at other children 1 to 2 times a day.

This behavior is significant, and it deserves a behavioral intervention. To begin with, the problem is likely to interfere with Lisa’s learning endeavors. This is because the aspect of spitting at teachers comes out as being disrespectful. This might make several teachers avoid her since they do not want to be humiliated in the presence of other students. Lack of attention will hinder Lisa from acquiring the desired educational skills. The problem is also likely to interfere with Lisa’s positive social interactions and relationships with other children. This is because they will be avoiding her due to the fear of being spat at.


Question 2

Lisa’s behavior is triggered when she is asked to do something that she does not want to do. This includes something like being told to put away her toys. Being requested to transition from one activity to another also results in this behavior. The problem with the transition normally occurs when she is doing something that she enjoys a lot. When it comes to other children, the behavior is triggered when the children try to enter an area where she is playing.

These events result to Lisa spitting on both the teachers and her peers. It can be assumed that what follows the behavior is that the teachers leave Lisa to continue with her activities so that she can desist from the spitting. When it comes to other children, they are likely to refrain from interfering with her activities or other objects of interest.


Question 3

Lisa’s behavior is somewhat triggered by some events. Among them are instructional strategies. She normally commences to spit upon being requested to transition from one activity to another . It might be true that she dislikes the other events, but how she is instructed about the other upcoming events might be contributing to the behavior. Social situations maybe considered to be another setting event variable. This is because Lisa will only spit at her peers when they are trying to initiate an interaction while she is indulging in her activities.


Question 4

There are two functions of behavior in this case; which include negative reinforcement and communication. The rationale for selecting negative reinforcement is based on the fact that Lisa is avoiding things that she considers to be undesirable. She does not want to transition from an activity that she likes. It is a way of avoiding the activities that she does not find desirable. Lisa also spits at the other children in order to avoid their interaction from the activities that she likes doing on her own. When it comes to communication as a function, Lisa uses her behavior to communicate her displeasure with some activities. It is her way of saying that she does not want to be involved in a certain activity or certain individuals.

The rationale for not selecting other functions such as positive reinforcement is because the purpose of the behavior is not primarily aimed at obtaining something, since it is based on avoiding something. Lisa avoids undesirable activities by wanting to remain in activities that she likes. The sensory function is also not applicable since Lisa’s behavior is not an automatic reinforcement. It is usually dependent on other aspects since it is asserted that Lisa spits 4 times out of 9 classroom transitions daily; meaning not in all transitions.


Question 5

It has been established that Lisa adopts the behavior of spitting when she is protesting towards her teachers and peers. As a result, a Functionally Equivalent Replacement Behavior (FERB) can be used to help correct the behavior that Lisa is exhibiting currently. In this case, Lisa needs to seek for additional time in the activity that she is doing in order to remain in her desirable activities. Since she has low verbal skills, the teachers can instruct her to use the words “more time” when she does not want to transition from one activity to the other. When it comes to the peers, Lisa needs to say “NO” to her peers in order to keep them away from her solitary activities. Adopting these behaviors will ensure that she does not spit while trying to express herself.


Question 6

By when?

Within one month, the full mastery of the goal is expected to be actualized.



Instead of what problem behavior?

Spitting at the teachers while standing at the top of the slide and also spitting at her peers while undertaking solitary activities.

To achieve what (purpose or function)?

Lisa’s behavior is more of a negative reinforcement as it is aimed at ensuring that she does not transition from her favorite activity to less favorable activities upon being instructed by the teachers. Spitting at the other children on the other hand, is a way of ensuring that they do not get involved in activities that she enjoys doing alone. Lisa’s behavior can be viewed as a way of communicating her displeasure with certain actions.

Will do what?

This behavior will be replaced with Lisa requesting for additional time from the teachers when indulging in favorable activities by using the phrase “more time”. When it comes to the interaction with peers, the spitting behavior will be replaced by the concept of saying “No” to her peers.

Under what conditions?

Requesting for additional time (“more time”) will surface when she wants to continue with a given activity in light of a transition that leads to a less desirable activity. Saying “No” to her peers will come about when she does not want them to be involved in her solitary activities. Requesting for extra time while doing activities of interest is expected to take the same frequency as the spitting action; that is 12 times out of 15 recess periods a week and 4 times out of 9 classroom transitions daily. Saying “No” to her peers is expected to occur 1 to 2 times a day.

At what level of proficiency?

Since the full mastery is expected to take place within one month, the proficiency level is expected to be that of a novice. Lisa will be expected to progress to intermediate and other proficiency levels with time.


Question 7

Some PBS intervention strategies can be used in order to address the problem behavior. Among these strategies is for the teacher to state the behavior that she wants to see Lisa practice in light of her current behavioral practices. In this case, the teacher will state to Lisa that they want to see her request for additional time by saying “more time” when she wants to indulge in a given activity rather than transition to another activity. When it comes to the interaction with peers, the teachers will state to Lisa that they want her to say “No” when other children want to engage in her solitary activities, but she is not interested. It should be noted that in this case, the teacher does not tell Lisa that she should not spit. However, the teacher tells her what she should do and not what she should not do. By adopting the communication behaviors, Lisa will automatically do away with spitting since she cannot do both at the same time.

The above strategy can be reinforced by having another strategy that involves pre-arranged signals. The pre-arranged signals are meant to inform Lisa when she is doing something that is not acceptable. The signals will be used when she results to spitting instead of acting in the manner that has been outlined above. The signals can include a shake of the head, a hand motion, or a colored card that will be placed on the teacher’s desk. As the teacher moves around, he/she can alert Lisa without drawing attention to her or her behavior. Before deciding on the signal to use, the teacher and the student have to be in agreement. The choice of the signal should be based on what Lisa wants it to be in order to ensure that she does not forget. The purpose of the signal should be clearly communicated to the student.  Actually, this would be a favorable strategy given that Lisa responds well to structure and visual supports like gestures, transitional objects, and visual schedule. It will be easier for her to take instructions using pre-arranged signals as a result.


Question 8

Lisa tends to act in a given way based on the environment that she has been subjected to. There are some environmental changes that can be made to help address the current behavior problems. Lisa tends to be good with 1:1 instructions, but this seems to be limited at the moment. The teacher should take this opportunity in order to change the current behavior that Lisa exhibits. The teacher should ensure that when she is giving Lisa instructions, she does it on a one on one basis. This includes the time when the teacher will be introducing the Functionally Equivalent Replacement Behaviors that he/she wants Lisa to adopt.  Based on the way she operates, it will be much easier for her to adopt the new behaviors in one on one basis. In order to reinforce and ensure that the new behaviors have been adopted and maintained, the teacher should ensure that Lisa is subjected to small group instruction as much as possible. This is because she responds better while in small groups of 2 to 3 students.

The use of visual supports should be made more consistent while in different environments. This is because Lisa learns best under these circumstances. In case there is a need to learn a certain behavior or skill, teachers should strive to use strategies such as video-modeling. The frequency of the usage should only reduce as Lisa gains more progress. This will ensure that she has achieved a lot compared to other methods since she has a favorable interest in the approach.

Do you need an Original High Quality Academic Custom Essay?