Managers usually have various responsibilities when it comes to planning, coordinating and controlling work. In the aspect of planning, managers are responsible for conducting an environmental analysis, forecasting, and decision making. The environmental analysis involves the assessment of both internal and external factors affecting the organization i.e., SWOT and PEST analysis. Forecasting entails a projection of various issues that the organization is likely to encounter. Decision-making on the other hand, is conducted on a daily basis to ensure the organization remains afloat. In coordinating, managers are responsible for resource planning, identification of tasks and activities, staffing and resource allocation among others. These activities are meant to ensure that all resources are working as a unit. The controlling aspect involves the establishment of performance standards, measuring organizational and staff performance and enacting corrective or preventive actions.
Managers tend to use a variety of mechanisms to ensure that the objectives of the team are being met. Among these mechanisms is leading and inspiring. Under this respect, managers act as leaders and show the employees what to do by example. It becomes easier for the team to attain its objectives since they have a roadmap to follow. Enhancement of effective team communication is another mechanism used by managers. Effective communication ensures that the appropriate information is disseminated, and this helps in moving forward. Managers are also fond of ensuring that training and development needs have been met. Through training and development, employees are aware of what is expected of them hence work towards actualizing it.
The role played by a manager contributes to the achievement of the organization’s mission, vision and objectives. This is based on the activities that managers undertake in the day to day running of the organization. Among them is operational and tactical planning. This helps in supporting the organizational strategies, and this works towards achieving the desired objectives. Managers are also responsible for ensuring that resources are allocated sufficiently. This ensures that the organization is able to meet its current and future objectives. In the process, it becomes easier for the organization to attain its mission and vision since everything is operating optimally. The management of organizational and individual performance also helps in attaining the mission, vision and objectives. This is because there is an assurance that everything is working as per the targets. Achieving the necessary targets usually means that the company is moving in the direction of achieving its desired goals.
There exist various models and theories of management. Among them is Max Weber’s Bureaucratic Theory of Management and the Administrative Management Theory by Henri Fayol. Weber’s theory postulates that bureaucracy results to the development of the most efficient organizations. It is all about management by rules where there is a set of standard operating procedures. The key elements of this theory are defined work methods, well-defined formal hierarchical structures and interpersonal relationships based on positions. This theory would be applicable in a workplace that is involved with the manufacturing of mass products. There is a need for consistency in such a workplace hence various rules should be followed at all times. This ensures uniformity of products. Henri Fayol’s administrative management theory on the other hand, focuses on managerial practices to increase efficiency. It is more of a top-down approach where managers are completely in charge of the staff. The management has six functions that include coordinating, organizing, controlling, forecasting, planning and commanding. The major principles that they uphold are those of remuneration, division of labor, equity, discipline, authority and responsibility among others. This is applicable at a workplace where there are hierarchies. Each manager is responsible for the employees lower in his/her hierarchy.
Application of management theories tends to guide a manager’s actions. A good example is how Fayol’s functions of management tend to be recognized as mainstay activities of modern managers. Aspects such as redesigning and re-engineering production processes help to improve an organization’s efficiency. Other aspects like the use of output based remuneration systems also help to guide a manager’s actions. This is because he/she is accorded an avenue to motivate the employees using the remuneration system. Involving employees in decision making is another aspect instigated by management theories. Most managers would prefer to be autocratic so that they can showcase their authority over the junior employees. However, the theories developed by the relevant organization do not allow them to do this because there is a certain structure through which the organization should be operated.
Budgets usually impose various operational constraints on the organization. The operational constraints usually affect production and staffing. When it comes to staffing, it results in the reduction of employees or inability to increase the number of employees. This is because when budgets are instituted the most effective area to reduce costs is the one involving employees. This results to operational constraints since the workload does not reduce but the number of employees has reduced. It might result to inefficiency. The budgets also result to lack of training and development opportunities. This affects employees’ performance. When it comes to production, budgets result in inadequate investment in technology and machinery, inadequate supply of raw materials, failure to meet orders due to limited capacity and underutilization of equipment.
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