As the life expectancy ratio increases around the globe, so are the diseases that are associated with old age. The old age comes with numerous diseases that affect the people because f the different structural fallouts and the deficiencies of various antibodies that comes with age. One of these diseases is Alzheimer’s disease which has been a massive concern for medical professionals. Various researchers have done the work on Alzheimer’s disease and what can be used to reduce the effects ad the symptoms. Melatonin is one of the hormones that have been proposed to reduce the effects that Alzheimer’s disease have on older patients. This literature review will give findings from various authors about melatonin and the effects that it has in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease.
Research by Sulkava et al. (2018)
Sulkava et al. (2018) researched Melatonin receptor types 1A gene that is linked to the Alzheimer’s disease affecting the people in old age, and they showed that type 1A gene of the Melatonin receptor is a significant part of Alzheimer an is directly linked to Alzheimer’s disease that affects the elderly. This research maintains that the disruptions that take place in the circadian rhythm are ma infestation that is seen majorly in Alzheimer’s disease. There have also been many suggestions that shifts this research towards the risk factors that are associated with Azheizeime’r disease. According to top the research by Corpas et al., (2018), melatonin is responsible for the induction of the brain mechanisms that are resilience against the neurodegenerations process. According to this finding, melatonin comes in the form of the endogenous molecule that is responsible for the orchestration of the all the regulatory functions as well the protection against the existing ailments that are related to age. The increasing levels of circulation that melatonin goes through in the dietary supplements always increases the health benefits that come with it. For the researchers that have investigated the models of the animal shows that here is a proof about the melatonin being a protection against the Alzheimer’s disease pathogen. However, the clinical studies for this type of evidence have not been conclusive and cannot be used in the laboratory operations. They hypothesized this study shows that the use of melatonin induces the various changes in the brain through the increase or attenuation of the AD through the resilience increase. The pilot study analyses the effects of melatonin on the cortical activities that take place when someone is sleeping especially during the sleep onset time in the patients that are within the mid to moderate conditions and the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and are treated under the fast release melatonin. Through treating the healthy a six old month mice with the dose of melatonin, there was the recognition of the melatonin reverse impairment. There were also various behaviors such as anxiety and the different form of an empath. The other behavior recognized was the melatonin-induced wellness level.
The recent reports have shown that the intolerance of shifting the work especially those examples such as the correlated exhaustions for the shift workers that have the variety of factors such as rs12506228A is located at the type 1A gene that is close to the melatonin receptor. The other factor is the MTNR1A brain levels of expression. This study shows that the variant that is shown with the diseases such as the clinical neuropathological Alzheimer’s for the Finnish cohort Vantaa showed the close association with the Alzheimer’s disease (Corpas et al., 2018). The research used a total of 512 participants. All the participant that were tested were more than 85 years of age. Rs12506228A was found to be closely associated with a different form of Alzheimer’s disease when there waste use of the (p = 0.000073). By analyzing the tissues in the post-motor unit, it should be that there was the highest possible amount of the neurofibrillary tangles. Also, the amyloid beta plaque of the value of (p = 0.0041) was found. While studies have shown that e melatonin is established in regulations process that takes place during the circadian rhythms, other roles are completely independent and have shown to play a major role in the neuroprotection for the anti-amyloid genic effects.
The secretion of melatonin has been proven to massively decrease in the people that are suffering from Alzheimer´s disease (AD). This decrease is postulated to be massively responsible for the disorganization of the circadian circulation. It also the efficiency in sleep a well as the impaired cognitive function. All these features are seen the patients who have Alzheimer´s disease (AD) illness. Research also shows that more than half of the patients that are suffering from Alzheimer´s disease (AD) develops the disturbances of the Chrono biological disturbances in rhythm. These disturbances come in the form of the agitated behaviors within the evening hours. In some cases, the patients experience sundowning. The replacement of the melatonin is effective when treating the patients that are suffering from the wake-sleep disorders and Alzheimer´s disease (AD) patients (Corpas et al., 2018). When there I the use of the antioxidant and the mitochondrion effect of the melatonin, it indicates the existing potentiality of interfering with the onset that is experienced in the disease. This is the issue that is significantly important when the patients are tested for them, mild cognitive impairment. This is the heterogeneous etiological syndrome preceding dementia.
Research by Cruz-Aguilar et al. (2018)
Cruz-Aguilar et al. (2018) study the effects of EEG activities that take place when the people especially those that are under Alzheimer’s. In their finding, they found that the five milligrams of the melatonin that has been released significantly reduce the nocturnal condition of sleep in the patient with the Alzheimer disease. The patients with the disease have the level of the melatonin significantly reduces with the increasing significantly. However, it is also shown in this study that the physiology behind it and the existing mechanisms that promoted the sleep through the melatonin installation is not known quite well. The patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) can therefore not be helped effectively because of the lack of the physiological backup.
The vitro, and the RNA mediation that silences the MTNR1A have been shown to increase with the processing of the (APP), amyloid precursor protein. The processing takes place within the neuron whereas the process of overexpression decreases it massively. The variations that are close to the MTNR1Ahave the same risk factor that is also shared with the genetic risk for the increased intolerance to the shift work as well as the increased susceptibility to the Alzheimer’s disease that affects the people at old age (Cruz-Aguilar et al., 2018). The genetic associations are also likely to be immediately expressed in the MTNR1A gene which is also modulating the amyloid precursor protein metabolism.
The proteasome activities together with the upregulation of Gas6 modulations together with the receptors are displayed similarly to the NoTg and 3xTg-AD in the used mice in the experiment. Hence, these results can confirm that there is the potential treatment of the melatonin against the pathogen AD through the opening of the new pathways in the action mechanism. This also comes from demonstrating the melatonin. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has become one of the major challenges in the world today and is a health concern to many healthcare professionals and researchers throughout the globe. When the compilation is done for the top ten most commonly mentioned diseases that are leading to the deaths of many people in the globe. The other concern is that the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have always been op the increase with many practitioners finding it difficult to handle. The overall global expectancy of life has been on the increase. This is the most concerning issue with Alzheimer’s disease (AD because many of the diseases are caused by the old age. As it stands, more than forty-seven million individuals have Alzheimer’s disease (AD or the diseases that are related to dementia. The concerning thing is that the number is estimated to be on the increase to more than 131 million people by the year 2050. The pathology of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is made up of the decline in the functional characteristic in the amyloid-β (Aβ) clearances.
There have been many research works that are established on the level of melatonin that reduces massively with the increase in age. For the people who have Alzheimer’s disease, the level is even lower and sometimes have for the people of the same age that do not have this type of disease. Alzheimer’s disease reduces the level of melatonin massively. Sleep disturbances are a frequent symptom that is witnessed and experienced by people who have Alzheimer’s disease. The supplementation of the melatonin in the system of the old people has been proven to be quite significant. It reduces the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease such as lack of sleep and problems like the sundowning seen in older individuals. This is a trend that is experienced by AD patients in the evening. Many people also experience increased aggression, agitation and the anxiety when the day ends. The aggression can also be seen through the day. Nearly a fifth of the patients that are suffering from the AD experience these actions. Evidence shows that such patients can be helped through inducing the melatonin into their system.
Research (Corpas et al., 218).
(Corpas et al., 218) Starts by mentioning that even though the difficulty that people have in falling asleep is one of the major characteristics that is used in describing the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), there are limited number of studies that have been focused on the alternatives for testing the pharmacological options and the methods that can be used in treating the patients suffering from AD (Corpas et al., 218). There is a massive concern for one treatment option for the problems that the AD patients go through especially those that are related to the lack of sleep. The most commonly known treatment for the AD patients the use of the melatonin. The type of melatonin used is (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine). This chemical plays a major part in the rhythmic control of the cardiac circle. Melatonin is one of the hormones that come from the pineal gland. This gland modulates the circle of the people when they wake up and when they sleep. The secretion of the (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) melatonin is increased when there is the darkness and but it is also suppressed when there is the light that is seen during the day. This is the reason why it is easy to sleep and night and quite difficult to sleep during the day with the sunlight.
For the tests that are involving the healthy subjects, the release of melatonin reduces the sleep latency onset which in turn increases the time that they use in sleeping. As a result, healthy patients sleep longer than the patients that are not healthy. This also leads to an improved quality of sleep. When it comes to the activity of the neutral patients, after the administration of the melatonin in the body, there is the reduced activity of the slow wave.
In the studies that had been conducted previously in the same research, there is the demonstration of the 5 mg that takes place in the fast release melatonin that massively limits the nocturnal sleep cycle and the onset of the patients that are suffering from the mild-to-moderate AD. The continuous reduction of the sleep onset, there are the approaches of major values that have been reported for the non-dementia geriatrics patient. Nonetheless, the physiology and the ideas behind the mechanism where the melatonin continues to promote the sleep installations is less understood by past research.
The continuous process of oxidative damages has been shown by several studies to be the major cause of the aging process and the diseases that come with aging. As people age, they are exposed to several diseases. This is because of the lack of ability to defend against some of the most complex pathogens that are affecting the body. The body is also running out of the ant pathogen strengths as a result of the old age. This makes older adults become exposed to some of the most frequently developed diseases. The elderly are exposed to diseases more than the young. One of the diseases that they are exposed to is Alzheimer´s disease (AD) (Corpas et al., 2018). The concept of Alzheimer´s disease (AD) is based on the free neurodegenerative and the radical hypothesis of the process of aging that had been proposed more than 50 years ago. Many of the studies that have recently looked at the nature of Alzheimer´s disease (AD) have given some of the most compelling issues and the relation that has with some complication in sleep and other old age conditions. The decisive participation of the severe oxidation stress and process leads to the development of a common symptom in Alzheimer´s disease (AD). This is the conditional neuropathological development. Numerous compounds are part of the antioxidants that have been used in the treatment of Alzheimer´s disease (AD). The antioxidants are also used in the treatment of the other neurodegenerative diseases that are different from the AD.
In these substances, melatonin is one that has been used because of its unique properties and the characteristics that have not been seen in the other antioxidants. One of the characteristics is that it is a natural compound that is made easier through the grand synthesis. Melatonin is made in the pineal gland together with the other tissue within the body. Also, it is a compound that can be released through the pineal recess and taken directly into the cerebrospinal. This is easy as it is much highly concentrated when compared to the other antioxidants. However, the production of the melatonin reduces gradually as the age of an individual increase. This is a fact that has been proposed as the predisposing agent in neurodegenerative illnesses. The therapeutics and the potential of the melatonin in the treatment of the illnesses such as the Alzheimer´s disease (AD) together with the other minimal cognitive impairments (MCI) have been studied as one of the ideas that will help the elderly population to improve on the elimination of the Alzheimer´s disease (AD) disease. The MCI can effectively represent prodromal Alzheimer´s disease (AD), and it has to be diagnosed effectively before being treated effectively.
According to other studies, Alzheimer’s disease has proven to be a devastating disease and therefore the development of the unique methods to treat it have been the agendas of any researcher (Sulkava et al., 2018). As a result, the development of the melatonin hormone has helped in improving the symptoms of the illness. The elderly that have been affected by the disease can see significant improvement especially with the other symptoms such as sundowning and sleeplessness. The relationship between Alzheimer’s disease and Melatonin have been looked at as one of the best revelations in the old age disease research and discovery. The fact that melatonin has many roles that it plays in the body, especially in the regulation of sleep makes it an important hormone. This hormone is produced by the brain and the pineal gland issues. The release from the pineal gland tissues is mostly at its peak when melatonin is at dusk and the hormone effectively change the cycles of sleep falling.
There are other several benefits of the used melatonin n the cases of the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. As a powerful antioxidant, it acts as the counter to other chemicals that comes from the oxidation that is responsible for the cell damage. This is because of the neuroprotective qualities that it has. Hence, it protects the brain cells together with the other nerve cells from being damaged by the oxidation process and the chemicals that come from the oxidation processes (Sulkava et al., 2018). There is also evidence about the inefficiency of melatonin that is responsible for the cases of depression. Research has shown that Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative illness that is associated with t the age and comes with the progressive loss of numerous capabilities of the individuals. With time, the patents of AD loss their memory and other cognitive functions together with their neurobehavioral manifestations. Despite the large studies that have been done of the benefits and the possible uses, the etiology of the Alzheimer’s disease have continued to remain unknown. The people that are participating in the oxidative stress are also warranted. There are several mechanisms behind the disease. This is why the research about the role that is played by the melatonin will continue to remain a subject of various research works. With the increasing life expectancy, many people are growing old making them vulnerable to many illnesses that come with old age. Therefore, some people are exposed to Alzheimer’s disease and the methods of treating it will continue to form the basis of academic research and institutional information. This review has shown the different aspects of the melatonin and the effects that it has on Alzheimer’s disease. The authors have also analyzed the effects of inducing the melatonin hormone on the system of the people and other experimental animals to see whether there is an effect on the symptoms of AD. The positive revelation is a positive finding making the hormone a useful item when it comes to the treatment and reducing the Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer’s disease.
In conclusion, this literature review have addressed the works and findings of various researchers about the effects that melatonin have on Alzheimer’s disease. As one of the leading causes of death, Alzheimer’s disease will continue to be a concern for many researchers. Sulkava et al. (2018), Cruz-Aguilar et al. (2018), and (Corpas et al., 2018). Have explored the effects of melatonin on Alzheimer’s disease with various findings. The hormone can also improve mild impairment. Nonetheless, despite the numerous scientific studies that have been done on the benefits and the potential development of the melatonin. There is still a bigger gap in the development and the potential benefits that exist in this study. Because it is currently viewed and characterized as a supplement, it is a hormone that is still available without the possible prescription. For some researchers, the potential benefits still do not make sense. However, none of them have a rived at the conclusive evidence that shows what the future holds for melatonin.
Corpas, R., Griñán‐Ferré, C., Palomera‐Ávalos, V., Porquet, D., García de Frutos, P., Franciscato Cozzolino, S. M., & Cardoso, B. R. (2018). Melatonin induces mechanisms of brain resilience against neurodegeneration. Journal of pineal research, 65(4), e12515.
Cruz-Aguilar, M. A., Ramírez-Salado, I., Guevara, M. A., Hernández-González, M., & Benitez- King, G. (2018). Melatonin Effects on EEG Activity during Sleep Onset in Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer’s disease: A Pilot Study. Journal of Alzheimer’s disease reports, 2(1), 55-65.
Sulkava, S., Muggalla, P., Sulkava, R., Ollila, H. M., Peuralinna, T., Myllykangas, L., & Rivera, A. M. (2018). Melatonin receptor type 1A gene linked to Alzheimer’s disease in old age. Sleep, 41(7), zsy103.