Identify the legal requirements of the Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP).  Identify the legal requirements of the Individualized Education Program (IEP).  Discuss the broader functions of the IFSP and IEP processes. This question assesses performance relative to course objective 1. (4 points)

The legal requirements of IFSP include an approach that focuses on the family’s needs. As a result, a statement containing concerns, resources and priorities of the family that pertains to the child are required. The IFSP also need to be revised every six months since the needs associated with a child keep changing. The inclusion of various outcomes that have been achieved is also a legal requirement.

The legal requirements of IEP include that it must have a balanced team with at least general education teacher, parent, special education teacher, local education agency representative, school psychologist among others. The program must have a statement detailing a student’s education level and various goals needed to actualize the student’s needs. The child’s milestones are also outlined.

The broader function of IFSP and IEP is the identification of the milestones that a certain child ought to have actualized by a certain age so as to identify the areas of focus. For the IEP, the goals tend to be global and focus on a year analysis, which makes it difficult to measure. IFSP on the other hand has specific objectives that make it easy to measure.


Based on the readings in the CDE Handbook on Developing & Implementing ECSE Programs, describe the Models of Service Delivery for infants and toddlers age birth to 3 and preschool age children.  Discuss the benefits of inclusive programs and providing services in natural environments. This question assesses performance relative to course objective 2. (4 points)

In the models of service delivery, parents tend to provide an array of settings. The coordinator is normally accorded the responsibility of ensuring that various services in the children’s IFSP have been listed. Few children tend to receive group meetings based on the nature and scope of services accorded by LEA. On various occasions, LEA tends to provide services to children experiencing low-incidence disabilities every year. These early intervention programs help children in their growth and development while building their relationship with the parents.   Teachers and parents ought to work in partnership so that they can offer all the details regarding the children’s needs for the development and growth to be actualized. In California, there are several service delivery models including special day class, dual enrollment in special education and co-enrolled programs in the same class environment among others.

There are several benefits associated with the provision of services in natural environments and inclusive programs. They include a higher level curriculum, development of behavior and social skills, positive understanding of oneself, development of friendships, language use improvement and learning tolerance among others. Special education aims at giving students a better chance of living like normal children.  This is attained by according these children natural environments.


According to Copple and Bredekamp (2009) in chapter 1 of the DAP text, “To be an excellent teacher means… teaching to enhance development and learning.” (p. 36).  Identify developmentally appropriate strategies for teaching and highlight the relationship of these strategies to the implications for teaching that Vargas (2009) discusses in Chapter 3.  Finally, discuss the role of interpersonal relationships in teaching and learning. This question assesses performance relative to course objectives 3 & 11. (6 points)

For developmentally appropriate teaching strategies, teachers ought to:

  1. Appoint for children’s actions and behavior.
  2. Provide specific feedback as opposed to general ones.
  3. Help students in the completion of their work.
  4. Acknowledge the actions of the children.
  5. Provide children with data like verbal labels, facts and other relevant information.
  6. Demonstrate appreciation when children do something in the appropriate way.
  7. Encourage effort and persistence for activities being undertaken.

The strategies above have relationships to the implication of teaching.

Student Activity

Students ought to observe moral values and characters demonstrated by the teachers and absorb them.

Determining students’ performance

The teachers’ efforts ought to be directed towards students’ performance; where the performance is determined by the conducive environment.

Drive towards outstanding performance

The entire teacher’s effort should aim at maximizing students’ assistance. Students ought to follow the teachers’ directives and advice in return.

Interpersonal relationships play various roles in the school environment.

Teachers and other staffs in the institution

The school environment should bring the teachers, students, and other staff for the sake of improved students’ performance.

Teachers and families

A positive relationship between the parties impacts the student positively since there are eyes on all aspects of the student’s life.

Teachers and students

Creation of a favorable environment in this relationship helps the student to develop in different ways based on the nature of interactions involved.


According to Copple and Bredekamp (2009) in chapter 1 of the DAP text, “To be an excellent teacher means… being intentional.” (p. 33).  One aspect of intentional teaching is knowledge of developmentally appropriate objectives for learners.  Using chapter 5 of the DAP text and the California Preschool Learning Foundations, identify and discuss the objectives for preschool-age children’s learning. This question assesses performance relative to course objectives 4 & 6. (4 points)

The objectives include creation of a caring society of intellects through:

1.Building a “classroom” community

Actualizing this will help both the community and the school to co-exist as one by building a pillar of each other in school and community-based activities.

  1. Fostering positive relationship

Teachers ought to involve themselves in the dimension of teacher-student relation building. This goes to the extent of improving teacher-parent and parent-student relationship. Teachers should also embrace the aspect providing guidance and motivation in addition to teaching.

  1. Planning curriculum to achieve important goals

In order to achieve important goals, the curriculum should be comprehensive and cover all aspects of development. Ideas should be integrated by both students and teachers from different perspectives. For effective implementation, teachers should take the obligation of following the appropriate directives. Goals being targeted include physical development, fine motor movement, and gross motor development.

  1. Enhancing developments through learning

For this to be attained, several factors need to be considered. The learning environment and the schedule ought to be conducive. The teaching methods should also suit the circumstances, where either the teacher or student-centered approaches can be used. The learning approaches also need to be positive and motivational.

  1. Language and literacy

This includes book reading, speaking, writing, phonological awareness, and social completeness among others.


Use the case study provided in the Assignments section of Blackboard attached to the Midterm Exam to respond to the following question. Using the case study information, the California Infant-Toddler Learning and Development Foundations, and the DAP textbook (ch. 3) examples for toddlers, identify one objective for the family and one objective for the child. Discuss the rationale for each choosing each objective. This question assesses performance relative to course objectives 4 & 6. (4 points)

Families with CP infants are finding it difficult to manage their children’s chronic health implication. The provision of healthcare that involves body movements such as juggling is important since it works towards improving both psychological and physical well-being of the child and the parents. Based on the case study provided, on most occasions, the families of the children that have been victimized tend to feel isolated.

As a result of this occurrence, caregivers should ensure that they communicate with the relevant parents frequently. The nature of communication should be one that fosters honesty and respectfulness. This would go a long way into ensuring that trust and understanding between the parties have been developed. This might be important in solving varied issues that might arise along the way. The interventions are meant to address an array of aspects associated with feeding difficulties. This is achieved by reflecting the actual problems associated with nutrition and feeding in CP. For example, behavior modification programs may be used for children who have the ability to swallow food but are not willing to have the food put in their mouth.


Use the case study provided in the Assignments section of Blackboard attached to the Midterm Exam to respond to the following question. Write an IFSP Outcome for each objective identified including Procedures, Criteria, and Timelines. Describe what recording methods will be used to monitor progress for each outcome. This question assesses performance relative to course objective 6. (4 points)

Question 5 has discussed two objectives that include the provision of help for the children so that they can eat independently and the establishment of a positive relationship with the family. As a result, the first IFSP outcome will be family centered.  A difficult situation is created when parents are not included in the sessions. There is a form of distance that arises when this is done. They feel as if they are being isolated from the child’s life. It makes them feel less important, yet it is their child who is under consideration. Based on this, the first outcome is meant to be participation based. During Carl’s OT sessions or other sessions that might pertain to him, parent’s participation should be accorded as need be. The parent will also get the report of what was being done and observed during the sessions. He will get more ideas about the technique and resources during sessions with the Occupational Therapist.

The next IFSP will be focused on Carl. This will mean that the objective is aimed at ensuring that he can eat independently. Carl has the ability to eat solid food, but cannot hold utensils. This makes it difficult for him to eat without assistance. The focus on Carl will try to ensure that he makes the relevant practices of positioning and sensorimotor management.  These aspects will enable him to feed without the need of assistance. The major problem that Carl is experiencing is that he has poor muscle control that prevents him from holding the utensils for the desired period. There is a need to enhance suitable head and trunk positioning while he feeds. This will enable successful oral food management since it reduces the risk of aspiration.


Identify the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) recommended practices for using assistive technology.  Provide an example of high tech assistance and the circumstances under which it could be used effectively for a young child.  Provide an example of low tech assistance and the circumstances under which it could be used effectively for a young child. (4 points)

Division for Early Childhood as an international organization is involved with catering for the infant’s needs and children up to the age of 8 years. The organization upholds the use of assistive technology so as to make the lives of children better. This is based on the advantages that children get from using these technologies. Children get to benefit in that…

  1. Assistive technology facilitates their involvement in developmental activities.
  2. They get to understand various concepts with ease and undertake required activities and routines.
  3. They also get to develop independence in various aspects like communication, development of adaptive and social skills just to mention a few.

Examples of high-tech assistive technology include keyboard alternatives like on-screen keyboard, electric wheelchair, computers, screen readers, screen magnifiers and electric toys. High tech assistive technology helps children to work better in various activities. Teachers need to ensure that the technology used is appropriate for the child using it. Using the wrong technology on a child would render the technology useless.

Examples of low tech assistive technology include large print text, grabbers, walkers, highlighting pens, planners, and pencil grips among others. The technology is more suitable when it works to make children more independent and have the ability to express themselves. Generally, they are suitable if they can help a child work effectively.


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