Mycobacterium Bovis is also known as ( M.bovis) is an aerobic bacterium that causes tuberculosis in cattle.it is said to be growing slowly at an interval of 16-20 hours.it is considered to be in the same class with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, this is the bacterium that causes tuberculosis in human beings. Mycobacterium Bovis can spread further and Couse tuberculosis to other mammals and human beings. M.bovis is considered to be a gram-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic bacteria.
M.bovis lacks the activity of pyruvate kinase, due to pykA containing a point mutation which affects the binding of Mg2+ cofactor. The final step of glycolysis is initiated by pyruvate kinase .therefore it causes the intermediates of glycolic intermediates not to undergo the oxidation metabolism. Although there is no any form of studies to prove this, it seems M.bosis has to rely on amino acids or fatty acids as a carbon source of energy metabolism.
During the 20th century, M.bovis was considered to be the leading course of deaths among the animal. The infection used to occur when the bacterium was ingested. M.bovis can be transmitted into the human body through the consumption of the raw and infected cows milk.it can also be transmitted through the aerosol droplets. In the developed countries the infection is very rare nowadays; this is because the bacteria in the infected milk are killed through pasteurization. Pasteurization helps in destroying the organisms in the milk that causes the disease by heating the milk the cooling it. This process eliminates M.bosis completely from milk products. A person can also get infected with M.bosis through direct contact with a wound. This can happen in the process of hunting or slaughtering. Also when a person inhales the air that was exhaled by an animal which was infected by M.bovis they will definitely be infected. When a person is considered to be having M.bovis disease in their lungs when the person coughs or sneezes there is a high chance that they will transfer the virus to the next person.
Through the eradication program in the UK where the cattle are being tested for the disease if they are found positive of the disease they are culled. The government veterinary surgeon will inspect the carcass and confirm if it is fit for human consumption if it’s found to be okay then people can go ahead and eat the meat. However, in the developing countries where they are not used to pasteurization, human tuberculosis is very common through M.bovis.
In most cases, M. bovis causes TB diseases in people that can affect the lungs, lymph nodes, and other parts of the body. However, not everyone that has been infected with M.bosis becomes sick. There are those people who are considered infected but does not show any sign of sickness such people have what we call latent TB infection (LTBI).people with LTBI do not show any signs of illness nor symptoms of the disease and they cannot spread TB to others. According to the total number of TB cases in the United States, less than 3% is caused by the M.bovis. This can be estimated to 230 fewer TB cases reported in the United States per year.
The rate to which people are being infected with the M.bovis virus is very low. People who are most likely to be in infected with M.bovis are the ones who work with animals like Bison and cattle’s. Also, dealing with their products like meat, hides, and milk, working in a slaughterhouse or working in a butcher. Even people working in ranches and those who do dairy farming are at high risk of getting the disease.
Symptoms of M.bovis differ in different people. One might not show any signs of having M.bosis because not all of it becomes TB disease. Symptoms of TB disease caused by M.bovis are the same as the symptoms of TB caused by tuberculosis .the symptoms include night sweats, fever, and weight loss. Some signs occur differently depending with the part affected by the M.bovis for example if the disease affects the lungs of a person they will experience cough and also a gastrointestinal disease which will course diarrhea and much abdominal pain. A person might die if they will get treated as soon as possible.
The treatment of M.bovis is the same as treatment for M.tuberculosis. Most doctors have a challenge in differentiating whether a patient has M.bovis or M.tuberculosis. M.bovis is known to be resistant with Pyrazinamide; this is an antibiotic know for treating TB disease. However, this does not make treatment difficult or not possible since TB can be managed through a combination of antibiotics.
There are many ways in which M.bovis infection can be prevented since it is considered that people get infected through drinking the unpasteurized dairy products such as milk and cheese. This should be avoided so as to reduce the risk because it brings health risks. People are advised to be very keen when buying home products from the shops. They are advised that they should make sure the products are pasteurized to reduce risks of infections.
Also, if a person suspects that they were exposed to a wild animal that might be having M.bosis, should go for a medical checkup as soon as possible to avoid being infected.
People such as the dairy workers who spend most of their time with cattle’s or animals that might be carrying M.bovis. Should not wait to go for a medical checkup if they notice any symptoms of TB
I decided to choose the topic on Mycobacterium bovis so that I can Learn more about Mycobacterium bovis is causes and the effects it has on human beings and also to learn how it can be prevented