Nervous and Endocrine Systems

Nervous and Endocrine Systems

Nervous and endocrine systems play an essential role in the coordination of biological functions. Endocrinology provides both a challenging and exciting opportunity for the clinician to examine different anatomic sites of the body since most of the endocrine disorders do not present themselves as a palpable abnormality. On the other hand, the nervous system contains sensitive components that detect environmental stimuli. It is made up of neural networks that signal the human brain. Even though the two systems have significant differences, they have standard features that play a crucial role in the coordination of biological activities.

The work of both systems work results in external stimuli adaptation. However, the response pathways vary significantly since the systems utilize different components to conduct the signaling of the cells. Besides both systems have a significant role in maintaining homeostatic balance. They achieve the process by coordinating and regulating activities from cells tissues and the organs. Besides both, systems utilize a negative feedback mechanism since the stimulus can conduct the opposite process with the aim of achieving balance.

While both systems play a significant role in controlling transmissions in the body, they differ significantly. The endocrine system conducts transmission through a slower process than the nervous system whose transmission is instant. Also, the transmitters of the endocrine system are chemically transported through blood while the that of the nerve impulses occurs in an electrochemical process. The hormones released from the endocrine system has a widespread effect, unlike the case of nervous impulses that have a specific impact on a specific part of the body. When compared in terms of the duration of their effect, the endocrine effect has a long term effect, unlike the nervous system that causes a temporary effect.

The leukocytes function in fighting the invading microbes. As a results alteration would be noted for the patients with an infection since the leukocytes tend to migrate to the site of infection. They then produce antibodies which provide immunity against diseases. However, The resulting levels will show high levels of leukocytes since the immune system are building them in large quantities to try and fight the infection. The immature white blood cells develop in response to infection. The high rate of white blood cells may not be indicative of a disease.

On the contrary, differential results would determine whether the infection exists. Besides the percentage of the bands in the white blood cells is an indicator of an infection. Therefore alteration of the white blood cells is familiar with the patients presenting cases of diseases.

The heart consists of four chambers that include the upper and lower section. In between each chamber is a blood valve that prevents the backflow of blood. The valves include the tricuspid valve located between the right atrium and the right ventricle. It closes off the atrium that contains blood coming from the body. Pulmonary valve allows the blood flow from the heart to the lungs by sealing the lower right chamber. The mitral valve collects blood coming from the lungs which are often rich in oxygen. It further allows it to pass left lower atrium to left ventricle. The aortic valve is the valve that allows the blood t flow out of the body.

When the valves do not close properly, the backflow occurs. The process would allow the blood to mix thus reducing the transport of oxygen and other vital activities required from the blood, thus threatening the lives of a person.

 
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