In the ontology view on the modern outlook, an organization is an adaptive system with the ability to change with the changing environment. The epistemology explanation of an organization as an adaptive system lies in the characteristics of first, being a system with interrelated subsystems that depend on each other (Dembek et al., 2016). Another feature that explains the system nature of an organization is its composition of social, technical and environmental systems. The three interact at a balance for effective organizational functioning. Also, all the systems within the organization work together, and their relationships attract different environments to enable the organization to work correctly.
Symbolic interpretative views an organization as being composed of experiences beyond the five senses of the employees and managers. The epistemology of that view lies in the concept that workers understand themselves and what they are supposed to do once they know symbols, objects, the cultural meaning of behaviors and culture of the organization (Dembek et al., 2016). The view leads to a conclusion in the characteristic that an organization is a community where each member’s behavior affects the others (Hansson, 2013). According to the symbolic perspective, observation and participation help to reorganize the organization structure for effective productivity.
The postmodern perspectives of organization management view an organization as a social system affected by human actions. The epistemology of an organization as a social system relies on the fact that human factor is motivated to fulfill specific needs differently and therefore changes the way an organization functions (Dembek et al., 2016). The characteristics of an organization under the perspective are a formal and informal structure (Raadschelders, 2011). The formal structure affects and gets affected by the social nature of workers leading to the informal characteristic. Effective organization functioning is dependent on teamwork.
Raadschelders, J. C. (2011). The future of the study of public administration: Embedding research object and methodology in epistemology and ontology. Public Administration Review, 71(6), 916-924.
Hansson, J. (2013). The materiality of knowledge organization: epistemology, metaphors, and society. Ko Knowledge Organization, 40(6), 384-391.
Dembek, K., Singh, P., & Bhakoo, V. (2016). A literature review of shared value: a theoretical concept or a management buzzword?. Journal of Business Ethics, 137(2), 231-267.