Pathophysiology of Immune Response

Pathophysiology of Immune Response


Allergies are everywhere and a threat to people who detect them. They invade the body and cause heavy sneezing and running nose while creating a lot of discomforts. Therefore, the discussion in this paper is about the pathophysiological changes of the immune system in response to allergies and a complete care plan for managing the allergens.

Pathophysiologic Changes to the Immune System When Exposed to Allergens

Two body subsets of the T-lymphocytes trigger the body’s immune reaction called the T helper cells which comprise of the TH1 and TH2. Usually, TH1 produces a variety of mediators to initiate the defense against the intrusion of allergies, or viruses. For individuals with atopic problems, the TH2 and their mediators hearten the immune system to detect allergens and build up a response against them (Muñoz-Mendoza et al., 2018). As Strachan (2000) suggest, the decreased natural exposure of children to disease-triggering agents as result of living in sterile surroundings, increase the ability of the immune system to develop the TH2 pathway in what is referred to hygiene hypothesis (Lucae et al., 2016). As well, the allergy entry points in the body include nose, skin, lungs and gastrointestinal tract, which allow passage of the allergen into the body during inhalation. Such mechanisms are the antigen presenting cells like dendritic and macrophages which are found in the mucosal surfaces of the body. When the antigen cells meet with the allergies, they absorb the allergen, process and display it on the surface. The antigens move to T cells, which upon detecting the allergen stimulate the B-cells which yield the antibodies to fight the allergen (Lucae et al., 2016). The antibodies such as the lgE move on the surface of the mucosal and the basophils. Allergens then cross-link with the lgEs on the surface of mast cells, and the cells ‘degranulate’, releasing mediators that fight the allergens.




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The Health Care Plan For Allergic Patient


Patients Profile Picture

The Health Care Plan

Allergy to: Grass and Pollen Grains

David Nixon               01-05-1999             Dr. Glen Winlock

Patients Name                       Date Of Birth                     Teacher

Allergic to pollen and grasses                Yes                              No

Signs of the Allergic Reaction

ü  Itching of the nose and swelling of lips, tongue or both.

ü  Itching of the throat and a feeling of tightness on the throat, hoarseness and a hacking cough.

ü  The skin develops rashes, extremities, and swelling of the face (Muñoz-Mendoza et al. 2018).

ü  The feeling of nausea and vomiting.

ü  Faster pulse rate relative to the average pulse.

Medication and Treatment


1.     If the pollen grains allergy is noticed, the patient is given antihistamine or decongestants to cater to minor symptoms.

2.     The swelling and itching are reduced using ice and topical creams that have the corticosteroids.

3.     Ensure the patient is in contact with the doctor to monitor the effects of the drugs on allergic reactions.

4.     The patient is sprayed with anticholinergic nasal allergy sprays to reduce the running nose in case of an inhalation allergy, after using the steroid nasal sprays.

5.     A lasting mast cell inhibitor cromolyn sodium is given to a patient who helps minimize the symptoms and cool the effect as it operates on sending of impulses.

The patients should avoid predisposing him or her in allergic environments to increase the time for the drug to operate and prevent re-entry of such allergenic nose.


ü  Avoid exposing yourself to allergic surroundings.

ü  Ensure you always have antihistamine for an emergency in case you encounter allergic environments.

ü  Keep yourself clean often to avoid triggering the allergens.

Medication Program

MEDICATION GUIDELINES ( if not adrenaline through autoinjector legalized by SCIA action plan)                             (clearly printed)
Formulation: Cream                                            Route:    Inhaled
Strength:       Hyperactive                                   Dose       Twice a Day at single puff
Start/finish date (if necessary)   from       15-03-2019                   to  24-03-2019

  Antihistamine and cromonyl sodium will be administered using the dosage and formulation prescribed in the program above. The mediation process is expected to run for nine days, and the patient will have completely recovered

Long Term Expectations

ü  The quality of life will be improved as a result of correctly using the prescribed dosage.

ü  There would be no future attacks for by allergens as the body will be prepared by the drugs to respond to the allergies ones detected.

ü  The patients will evade life-threatening events, especially when in allergic environments (Demoly et al. 2016).

ü  The patients will not develop new allergies as the drugs will stimulate defense against all kinds of allergies.





Demoly, P., Passalacqua, G., Pfaar, O., Sastre, J., & Wahn, U. (2016). Patient engagement and patient support programs in allergy immunotherapy: a call to action for improving long-term adherence. Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology12(1), 34.

Lucae, S., Schmid‐Grendelmeier, P., Wüthrich, B., Kraft, D., Valenta, R., & Linhart, B. (2016). IgE responses to exogenous and endogenous allergens in atopic dermatitis patients under long‐term systemic cyclosporine A treatment. Allergy71(1), 115-118.

Muñoz-Mendoza, D., Chapa-Rodriguez, A., & Bahna, S. L. (2018). Eosinophilic esophagitis clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis. Clinical reviews in allergy & immunology55(1), 7-18.