Disease Name Pathophysiology Etiology Signs/symptoms Diagnostic Tests Treatment
Leukemia Abnormal division and multiplication of premature blood cells that fail to carry out their functions ·       Radiations

·       Abnormalities in chromosomes

·       chemicals

·       Bleeding

·       Tiredness

·       Fever


·       Complete blood count

·       Bone marrow examination

·       Medications, e.g. Cyclophosphamide

·        Bone marrow transplant

·       Radiation therapy

Anemia The body lacks enough red blood cells, and so inadequate oxygen is carried to the tissues to carry out metabolic functions A decrease in red blood cells production ·       Fatigue

·       Shortness of breath

·       Weakness

·       Pale skin

Complete blood count


·       Iron and folate supplements

·       Diet improvement

Lymphoma Genetic changes in the body lead to abnormal growth of white blood cells Changes in the immune system ·       Cough

·       Weight loss

·       fatigue

·       Bone marrow aspiration

·       Blood tests

·       Imaging tests

·       Chemotherapy

·       Immunotherapy

·       Radiation therapy

Multiple myeloma Abnormal division and multiplication of plasma cells which then replace normal cell and disrupt their functions. Changes in DNA make plasma cells cancerous ·       Bone pain

·       Nausea

·       Weight loss

·       fatigue

·       Complete blood count

·       Blood chemistry tests

·       Chemotherapy

·       Blood transfusion

·       Autotransplantation

Elephantiasis A bite from an infected mosquito spread the roundworm larvae in the bloodstream. They then mature in the lymphatic system causing damage to the lymph nodes Bites from mosquitoes infected with the roundworm larvae ·       Swelling

·       Tough skin

·       Fever and chills

Physical examination and blood tests ·       Diethylcarbamazine

·       Ivermectin


Congestive heart failure Abnormalities in cardiac function affect the heart’s ability to pump blood to all expected areas resulting in symptoms such as increased heartbeats and weakness of the body ·       Disorders of heart valves

·       Recovery from myocarditis

·       Congested lungs

·       Fluid retention

·       Rapid and irregular heartbeats

·       weakness

·       echocardiogram

·       chest X-ray

·       blood tests

·       medications, e.g. ACE inhibitors

·       Coronary bypass surgery

Hypertension Narrowing of blood vessels leads to increased resistance to blood flow. As such, blood is forced through the vessels at a high pressure Lifestyle triggers such as stress and diet. ·       Blood pressure above normal

·       Severe headache

·       Fatigue

·       Irregular heartbeat

Measurement of the blood pressure ·       Antihypertensive medications such as ACE inhibitors

·       Lifestyle modifications

Coronary artery disease Narrowing and occlusion of blood vessels cause a reduction in blood flow. Blood fails to reach tissues cause myocardial infarction characterized by angina A build-up of plague in the walls of blood vessels ·       Angina

·       Heart attack

·       Shortness of breath



·       Lifestyle changes like quitting smoking

·       Medications such as statins

Angina Myocardial ischemia resulting from inadequate blood and oxygen supply Coronary artery diseases ·       Chest pain

·       Shorten of breath

·       sweating

Electrocardiogram and a stress test Nitroglycerin tablets and aspirin
Myocardial infarction Insufficient blood supply to the myocardium causes the formation of regional infarcts Imbalanced supply and demand of oxygen ·       Fatigue

·       Shorten of breath

·       Heartburn




Fibrinolytic therapy
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Damage to the airways and air sacs in the lungs leads to accumulation of mucus which then causes difficulty in breathing. Smoking cigarettes ·       Chest tightness

·       Wheezing

·       Shortness of breath

·       Lung function tests

·       Chest X-rays

·       Rescue inhalers

·       Bronchodilators and steroids

Asthma Exposure to allergens causes airway inflammation, obstruction, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Exposure to allergens and irritants ·       Shorten of breathing

·       Chest tightness

·       Coughing

·       Wheezing sound

Lung function test ·       Corticosteroids including prednisolone and

·       Salbutamol


Pneumonia Bacterial,  fungal, and viral infection of the lungs causes inflammation of the lung parenchyma. Bacterial infection ·       Fever

·       Chest pain

·       Confusion

·       fatigue

Chest X-ray and a complete blood count Antibiotics such as amoxicillin
Tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli are inhaled into the lungs. They occupy around goblet cells that secrete mucus Inhalation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli ·       chest pain

·       night sweats

·       coughing for more than two weeks

·       fatigue

The Mantoux tuberculin skin test Antibiotics including isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol.
Sleep apnea Obesity and excessive weight causes relaxation of tongue and throat muscles which lead to the obstruction of pharyngeal airways during sleep. Excessive weight and obesity ·       Loud snoring

·       Restless sleep

·       forgetfulness

Polysomnography Continuous positive airway pressure