Pharmacological and non-pharmacological modes of treatment

Pharmacological and non-pharmacological modes of treatment

Developing countries face a lot of challenges in their health due to the challenges they face in their countries. Most of the Sub-Saharan countries experience poverty, poor hygiene, and malnutrition that affects its population. It is quite unfortunate that its community has to suffer and even die from diseases that are preventable. HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis are some of the illnesses that disproportionally affects developing countries. Africa is the most affected region with 90% of deaths occurring from sickness, 70% from people living with HIV and 25% of the deaths from TB. Even though most of these diseases are treatable and preventable, most of the Sub-Saharan Africans die from these diseases. With such prevalence from their country, there is a higher possibility of immigrants infecting people in their new settlements to avoid cases of spreading the infectious diseases, and it is critical that the issue is addressed to ensure that the affected are cured and preventable measures put in place to safeguard people’s health.

There is a need to apply both the pharmacological and non-pharmacological modes of treatment to ensure that the diseases are entirely eradicated as well as prevented. There is currently no medicine that can cure HIV/AIDS; the good news, however, is that a combination of tenofoir, lamivudine or emtricibine and efavirenz can help manage the virus. These drugs are antiretrovirals that help in lowering a patient’s viral load and fighting infections to improve an individual’s quality of life. The drugs help reduce the chances of transmitting the virus to other people. Unprotected sex is a dangerous act as the virus is transferred from one person to the other; hence condoms should be distributed to this population so that they can relate responsibly and protect themselves from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An infected individual needs to eat a balanced diet for the body to access all the necessary nutrients needed to fight the virus. There are also many drugs that can be used to treat malaria such as quinine, mefloquine and atavaquone can be used to treat malaria. The spread of the diseases can be prevented by distributing treatment mosquito nets to avoid mosquito bites. The environment should be clean and without stagnant waters to discourage mosquitoes from breeding. Drugs such as Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Pyrazinamide, and Ethambutol should be provided to patients with tuberculosis. This drug helps diseases completely. Immigrants especially children should be vaccinated against TB and strategies for air-borne infection control to avoid further spreading of TB.

the cultural values and traditional practices of a population that can affect their acceptance and use of pharmacology

Immigrants will always adapt and practice the cultures of their country of origin. In some instances, these practices might pose a challenge in treating infectious diseases. Polygamy is acceptable in most African countries and is one of the leading causes of the spread of HIV. Most of them will find it unreasonable to use protection on their wives, and it becomes a challenge if they are more than one. The belief of witchcraft can cause some to refuse drugs as they might feel that their illness has been caused by witchcraft which might make it difficult to treat the disease. Herbal medicines are widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, and that may affect the acceptance rate of scientific drugs as many will prefer using herbs. There is a specific phobia among people when they realize that an individual has TB or HIV which leads to stigmatization. Such stigmatization prevents a large number of immigrants from knowing their health status feeling that they might be isolated in the society in case they are found positive. Marginalization and abuse of migrants might create fear and mistrust towards healthcare providers making it difficult for them to follow instructions.

, culturally sensitive strategies an organization can use to educate a population about the appropriate use of pharmacology

With such challenges, it is essential that these immigrants are taught about the importance of drugs in treating and managing their conditions. They also need to be educated on the causes of diseases as a way of creating awareness. They need to know that it is wrong to conclude disease and should, therefore, do tests to identify the specific condition and attain proper treatment. There is a need to use a language that is well understood by the immigrants or getting an interpreter if possible.  Communication is a useful tool in explaining details so that immigrants realize how different medicines work for various illnesses. Setting mobile clinics can help patients visit those clinics where they can learn about the pharmacological approach for infectious diseases. Nurses at those centers have a role of sensitizing them. Fliers explaining the different conditions can as well be distributed to the population so that they get to read about how certain drugs work. The community should be divided into groups so that each group is educated on issues relevant to their ages. It is, however, crucial that learning takes place without discriminating individuals based on their gender.

Education on the appropriate use of pharmacology is significant, but it may be ineffective if strategies to promote health and wellness are not put in place. There is a need to come up with programs that enhance the wellbeing of the immigrants to help achieve quality patient outcomes as well as their safety. Nurses should ensure that drugs are accessible to this population. There should be an equitable distribution of all the health facilities, products and services to ensure that the medical needs of immigrants are catered for. Donations can as well be done by organizations such as the WHO and offer free drugs as some may not afford to buy due to their poor financial status. Nurses need to be respectful of medical ethics which should be culturally appropriate and sensitive to age and gender. There is a need to enhance the monitoring of migrant health by ensuring standardization and comparability of data on their health. This will help in the provision of goods and services to this population. Issues of medical cover should be encouraged among immigrants so that they can access medical services without having to strain. There is a need to establish and support migration health dialogues and teamwork across regions and among large cities and countries of origin and address migrant health matters in global. Healthcare providers need to promote a migrant inclusive health system by ensuring that health services are delivered to migrants in a culturally and linguistically appropriate way. There is also a need to provide inclusive migrant services in a well-coordinated and financially sustainable way.

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