Phobia

Phobia is one of the abnormal behaviors that can be acquired by anyone. Based on the behavioral approach, it occurs through the classical conditioning operant and social learning theory. The occurrence has been associated with both classical and operant conditioning.

The behaviors acquired through classical conditioning are associated with learning. During this process an individual associate something with a particular event or an instance. For the case of the phobias, particular circumstances are associated with adverse events. Besides it often as a result of seeing something that triggers fear response through unconditional stimulus. Fr example of seeing a dog could trigger fear of being attacked.

The occurrence of phobias also relates to Operant conditioning. The process means that the phobias can have negative reinforcement. The manifestation of phobia is removed thus strengthening a positive behavior rather than imitating a negative memory about a particular instance. For example, exposure to the rats could create a detrimental phobia. However, exposure to calm mice in the lab could reduce the fear thus removing the negative memories about the rats.

In classical conditioning positive response occurs naturally. It often a response to an unconditional stimulus. For example, the smell of food initiates an individual’s hunger. Ivan Pavlov demonstrated conditioned response through the salivation of dogs. The behavior does not occur naturally. Instead, it is learned. The carrier of the stimulant similarly triggers the reaction.

  1. The positive reinforcement often motivates a particular behavior. It creates a higher chance of similar behavior occurring in the future. For example, if a parent gives a present to his or her child for every good behavior. It is more likely that such action could have future repetitions. On the other hand, the negative reinforcement means that removal of a particular negative is portrayed increases the chances of a specific behavior occurring in the future. For example, a child might be required to only get out of the dining table after eating two pieces of orange. Such a model provides a case where an aversive stimulus results in positive behavior. Most often the result initiates a positive response. Therefore, it is used to increase behavior

On the other hand, punishment is used to decrease a particular behavior’s. Punishment involves aversive or harmful behavior. Therefore, it is known to have a positive or negative impact. Positive discipline often results in the development of appropriate response while reducing the occurrence of adverse reactions, thus the behavior is less likely to happen in the future. Negative punishment results in adverse outcomes. For example, when a child refuses to eat and the parent or caretaker takes her favorite ball away.

Declarative memory remembers facts or events. For example, a memory of a birthday or a sports event requires an individual to recall an event. On the other contrary, procedural memory provides an opportunity for people to act on a particular activity. The episodic memory can remember a series of events of life. However, semantic memory recalls non-personal facts. An example involves the act of understating the difference between a girl and a boy or associating a particular person with a specific activity. Procedural memory is an acquired process of practice and repetition. One of the examples of procedural memory is a child learning to ride a bicycle or learning to skate or hike.

 
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