Plantae Kingdom (Cell Structure of Plant)

Plantae Kingdom (Cell Structure of Plant)

  1. Describe the general features of the typical cell for organisms

Plants are classified based on their differences and similarities under one kingdom known as Plantae. It is also referred to as kingdom Metaphyta. Different types of plants exist on earth. The kingdom includes all plants that are photosynthetic, multicellular, and eukaryotic. To understand each subtype of the kingdom Plantae, it is essential to analyze the organelles to sort out the differences and similarities between them and those of animals. The cell is the basic unit of a plant which has organelles performing various specialized functions to sustain it. Some plants manufacture their food with the aid of the sunlight. They are referred to as autotrophs, and they form the majority of the plants in terrestrial habitats which depend on direct sunlight. Most of the organisms under kingdom Plantae are of this type. However, some rare species exist which are both heterotrophs and autotrophs. General and specialized features live among the kingdom. Plants are known as eukaryotic because they have a nucleus. Plant cells contain chlorophyll, which is essential to aid them in manufacturing food through the conversion of carbon dioxide and water. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll,which gives most of the plants green color. Cellulose is the major component that makes up the cell wall.

Several general features of kingdom Plantae exist. They lack motility although they have self-defense measures such as growing curling for protection. Some plants change their appearance when touched or during a particular season. They reproduce by both methods, asexual and sexual. A significant feature with plants is that they make their food through photosynthesis, a phenomenon only found in this kingdom. Energy is produced in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) within the mitochondria, the power shell.The cells divide to grow and acquire new functions. The kingdom comprises of billions of species. Additionally, organisms are further classified according to two major features. These include the presence or absence of seeds and vascular tissue. The seeds and vascular tissues are primarily considered because their function is crucial. The latter aids the plant in transportation while the seeds store food which contains the embryo. Based on the two features, kingdom Plantae is divided into four phyla. They include division bryophyta, ptredophyta, thallophyta, and phanerogamae which is further subdivided into two: angiosperms and gymnosperms. The angiosperms haveuncovered seeds while the latter have them enclosed.

In general, five types of plant cells exist. These include phloem, xylem, sclerenchyma, collenchyma, and parenchyma cells. Phloem cells are considered the primary transporters which move nutrients from one point to another after photosynthesis, hence ensuring that the plants remain nourished for a long period and also enhance their growth. The huge portion of the material being transported is made up of sugar. In contrast, xylem transports water and some food in the opposite direction compared to phloem. Xylem cells supply what has been absorbed by the roots while phloem transports the end-product of photosynthesis. Furthermore, parenchyma cells are abundant in a plant and carry out various functions including respiration and photosynthesis among others. Also, substances such as protein and starch are stored in the parenchyma cells. Collenchymacells support the parts, which are growing. Thus, they shape the plant and determine height because they have the ability to grow. Some of the plants are tall while others remain short for the rest of their lifetime depending on the collenchyma cells that they have. Unlike collenchyma, sclerenchyma cells comprise of thick and dead parts which form the stem or support the areas which have stopped growing.

  1. Describe The Main Organelles

To differentiate a plant cell from an animal’s, it is important to check for three specialized organelles. These include the cell wall, large vacuoles, and chloroplasts. Cell wall is the outer layer covering the cell. It is usually rigid to maintain turgidity. In young plants, it contains a flexible membrane which matures later. Cellulose is the main building unit of the cell wall. Alongside cellulose, organelles such as lignin, pectin, and hemicellulose are also components. Vacuoles, also known as large vesicles, are sphere-like which contain ions and fluid. A central vacuole is essential because the organelle helps in maintaining turgidity with the help of the cell wall. During dehydration, the plant wilts instead of dying, unlike animal’s cell. Plants do well in hypotonic solution, which is aided by the large vacuole, which acts as the ‘bladder’ inside a ball.Additionally, chloroplasts are organelles found in only algae and plant cells. They utilize light energy water and carbon dioxide to manufacture their food. These organelles have two membranes and oval-shaped. Stroma, which is space within the outer membrane, contains chloroplasts. Within the chloroplasts is the thylakoids where chlorophyll is found. In other words, chloroplasts are the “solar panels” of a plant.

Additionally, amyloplasts are stores of excessive food. Plasmodesmata are pores through which cells communicate with each other. Several organelles exist which are both present in animal and plant cell. These include mitochondria; the ‘power station’ respiration takes place in these sausage-shaped organelles to generate energy.  Ribosomes are factories within the cell that manufacture protein. They are usually attached to the rough Endoplasmic Reticulum or suspended in the cytosol. Golgi apparatus is the ‘post office’ of the cell whereby tagging of the cell’s proteins occurs. They resemble pitta bread. According to the systematic process within a plant, Ribosomes manufacture proteins which are sent to the Golgi bodies for modification and packaging. After tagging, the proteins are stored in vesicles and transported either within the cell or outside. Smooth and rough types of ER exist. The latter type is lined with protein manufacturers, while the smooth one does not have the lining. Lysosome, the ‘recycling system’ of plants, breaks down worn-out materials. They are spherical and made of different digestive enzymes.

Furthermore, there are three major components of a plant cell which include nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane. The nucleus which is the biggest and most important organelles in a plant is round and dark that is covered by a membrane that is double layered. Along the membrane, there are spots, pores, through which difference substances go through. It is called permeable membrane as it allows only selected materials to pass. The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is contained within the nucleus in unique strands known as chromosomes. Major functions of a nucleus are to control reproduction and cell metabolism. Cytoplasm, which is a jelly-like substance, suspends the other organelles. It is found between the nucleus and cell membrane. Also, it contains substances such as salts. The plasma membrane is a bilipid layer that is made up of carbohydrates and proteins. Same as nuclear membrane, cell membrane is also semi-permeable. It controls the turgidity of cells and protects the organelles from the external environment.

  1. Why Are The Organelles Important To The Function Of The Cell?

Each organelle is important in the cell function because of differentiation of functions. A cell cannot function without the collaboration of the organelle’s effort to sustain the cell. For example, the nucleus cannot exist on its own without depending on the membrane and proteins within the cell. Therefore, each organelle is important as any other because each of them performs different functions. Another significant storage part of food is the plastids in plants. Two types of plastids exist, which are chromoplasts and leucoplasts. The latter is a colorless material whereby starch stored in it. Chromoplasts contain several colored pigments. Plants which entirely depend on photosynthesis to make food cannot survive in case of the lack of solar energy. Consequently, the plant dies. Basic cell processes in kingdom Plantae include cellular respiration and photosynthesis, which occurs within the leaves. Respiration occurs in mitochondria and the end product is the ATP.

Furthermore, each organelle depends on the information send by the nucleus which contain the coding materials for messages. The DNA contained in the chromosomes is important in identifying what the plant will make and how to translate different information. Organelles are linked to the control center by the messages sent by the nucleus. Thus, each function of an organelle is controlled by the nucleus and any alteration brings in a huge problem that might affect the whole cell.

  1. How the Plantae kingdom cells are different from other kingdoms?

The major difference between plan cell and other cells is the presence of central vacuole, chloroplasts, and cell walls. Other organisms lack these special organelles which are found only in plants. While plant cells thrive in hypotonic solution, animals do well in isotonic solution. This is because the cell of a plant cell is different and unique. The components of a cell wall are different from the other organisms. For instance, bacteria’s cell wall is made up of petptidoglycan while those of fungi contain a substance known as chitin. Both these components are not found in plants. The shared organelles between a plant and animal include ER, ribosomes, lysosomes, mitochondria, cytoplasm, cell membrane, and nucleus. However, there are those organelles found only in a plant cell. They include cell wall, plasmodesmata, vacuole, and chloroplasts. Animals are mobile unlike, plants which are not. Organisms under kingdom Plantae are non-motile. Unlike animal cells, plant cells depend on the solar energy to make their food.

Moreover, to differentiate some plants from other organisms such as algae, it is important to focus on the phyla of Plantae kingdom. Thallophyta, algae, are non-vascular and autotrophic plants. These plants grow only in special areas. Algae’s species include parasites, endophytes, epiphytes, thermophytes, and cryophytes. There are algae which are green color and others are not. Plants which have enclosed seeds; angiosperms, are divided into dicotyledons and monocotyledons. According to various scientists, it is important to note that centrioles are present in only animals and absent in plants. In animal cells, both mitosis and meiosis take place. This is not the case with plants. Cells found in animals lack vacuoles which are present in plants.These organelles occupy about 90% of cell’s space and mainly stored water. Moreover, plant cells are bigger than those of animals. Plant and animal cells are similar in different ways as they are eukaryotic. Animal cells make energy from food ingested and digested whereas plant makes their own.

Works cited

Dawes, Clinton J. Marine botany. John Wiley & Sons, 1998.

Hagen, Joel B. “Five kingdoms, more or less: Robert Whittaker and the broad classification of organisms.” BioScience 62.1 (2012): 67-74.

Justscience. “KNOW MORE ABOUT KINGDOM PLANTAE.” JustScience, 4 July 2017,

Margulis, Lynn. “Five-kingdom classification and the origin and evolution of cells.” Evolutionary Biology. Springer, Boston, MA, 1974. 45-78.

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