In discussing the paper on knowledge area, it is imperative to understand that primarily knowledge areas refer to the areas, different, of specialization. Further, a knowledge area can be defined as a representation of whole concepts, terms in addition to activities that add up to professional fields, project management fields and areas of specialization. Knowledge areas are made use of in many projects and they are ten in number which includes: Project Integration Management, Project Time Management, Project Procurement Management, Project Human Resource Management, Project Cost Management, Project Scope Management, Project Risk Management, Project Quality Management, and Project Communications Management in addition to Project Stakeholder Management. In Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK), Knowledge areas are found all through the time of process groups which are the different phases through which the project goes through. Process groups are mainly five in number, and they include Project Initiation, Project closing, Project Execution, Project Planning, and Monitoring and Controlling. The aspects of each process groups and every knowledge area will be discussed in this paper.
PMBOK Knowledge Area
Under the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK), the first knowledge area is Project Integration Management. This area deals with the coordination of all the different aspects of a project, and it is of extreme interaction. Essentially, this area is responsible for unifying the project into one piece. Project Integration Management has many processes which include: First, Developing Project Charter which initiates the project in addition to authorizing the manager responsible for the project. In this sense, the project charter ensures the incorporation of the project in addition to appointing the manager of the project. Second, Developing a Project Management Plan which is primarily a guiding document that ensures the success of the project. Thirdly, Project plan Execution which involves examining the project’s objectives with other alternatives to ensure that the project ends successfully. Lastly, is the Integrated Change Control which impacts project plan and impacts the execution in turn. All the processes under this area interact with operations of the other areas of knowledge.
The second knowledge area under PMBOK is Project Scope Management. Project Scope Management involves all the work included in the project. Its main concern consists of all processes of the project’s work required to see the project to completion. It has a number of five operations which include Initiation, Scope Change Control, Scope Definition and Scope Planning in addition to Scope Verification. These processes of Project Scope Management involve giving details of the requirements regarding the product that the project is concerned with in addition to activities that eventually leads to the actual project plan. Also, these processes verify the details through measurement techniques in addition to controlling the changes in the given procedures.
The third knowledge area under PMBOK is Project Time Management. This area involves estimating duration, coming up with a schedule and monitoring in addition to controlling deviations in the plan of the project. Project Time Management area consists of five main processes which are Activity Definition, Schedule Control, Activity Duration Estimating and Activity Sequencing in addition to Schedule Development. Mostly, these activity processes in addition to Schedule Development can be performed as one task, and therefore a single person can manage the five operations.
The fourth knowledge area is Project Quality Management. In this sense, time and quality are essential elements, and as such, one needs to invest more time in the project in order to acquire good quality. Plan Quality Management and Control Quality, in addition to Management Quality are the three processes which ensure the quality of the project is met under the Project Quality Management.
Other aspects of knowledge areas include Project Resource Management which is an underlying factor in any success of a given project. This aspect is involved in selecting a team which is right for the project, ensuring the satisfaction of the team and following closely to the performance of the team. Another aspect of the knowledge area is Project Communications Management which provides planning communications and monitoring communications in addition to managing communications within the project. The next element under knowledge area is Project Risk Management which involves risk identification, risk management, and risk analysis. Project Procurement Management is another aspect of knowledge area where the needs from outside are procured through the Procurement management plan. The last element is the Project Stakeholder Management under the knowledge areas. In this aspect, at the initiation phase of every project, identification of significant stakeholders takes place.
PMBOK Process Groups
Process Groups are those phases the project undergoes throughout from its initiation to its closure. There are many process groups which total up to five, and they include Project Initiation, Project Planning, Project Execution and Monitoring and Control in addition to Project Closing. Under PMBOK, Knowledge areas fall within the framework of process groups in the sense that process groups fall horizontally while knowledge area falls vertically thereby interacting both knowledge area and process groups.
Firstly, Project Initiation under process group involves the basics for creating the project in addition to giving definitions of guidelines for operating the project. Also, authorizations are given from performing organizations and stakeholders identified in addition to funding. This information is kept in a document referred to as Project Charter as seen in the aspects of knowledge areas. This document, project charter, ensures commissioning of the project in addition to authorizing the manager of the project.
Project Panning comes in after authorizing the project. Planning of the project is essential, and in most cases, costs can overrun as a result of failing to plan the project. In this case, it is imperative that the manager of the project remains keen with knowledge areas in project planning. In this phase, a document, project Management plan, is produced and it establishes the expectations of the stakeholders in addition to making clear on how the project is managed.
Project Execution under the process group involves the technical work that takes place in the project. In this case, the identified team comes together to ensure both work and production are delivered. It is at this stage that maximum coordination is expected from both the managing human resources and stakeholders. Monitoring and Controlling under process group involves ensuring that goods are delivered in desired quality, good time and within the budget. Lastly under group process is Project Closing. In this case, all the contractual obligations are completed and final details are given in addition to finalizing funding requirements.
Considerations for Agile Adaptive Methodologies
Agile methodology refers to a process through which a given team manages its project by dividing it into a number of small stages that involves adequate collaboration from both the stakeholders and Resource managers. In considering agile methodology while performing knowledge areas, it is imperative that when it comes to the area of project integration, the project manager ought to allow his team to ensure a detailed plan of the product delivery. In cases of Project Quality Management, the project manager should allow various reviews through retrospectives. Here, a new way of improving quality is given a trial based on the evaluation. Agile methodologies generally address more risks, motivate teamwork in addition to the provision of transparency. Further, stakeholders are engaged directly in agile methods when it comes to Project Stakeholder Management in the knowledge area.
An excellent example from the Bible that talks on knowledge area is the book of Luke 14:28-30 which states that if one is planning to build, he should first sit and make plans on the cost of building and ensure that he has enough money. If one fails to make these plans, then people will make fun of how he started the job that he cannot finish. In explaining this example, the Bible is bringing to light that one should make realistic in addition to achievable plans. Also, one is not wise enough if he starts a project without proper project management. In applying this principle in business, it is imperative that adequate planning is carried out to ensure the success of the business.
From the discussion above, it is clear that knowledge areas are the areas of specialization in project management and both knowledge areas and process groups interact with each other and cannot be separated. Process groups are the different phases of a project, and they associate with knowledge areas in their operation. The agile methodology should be encouraged in project management since it motivates teamwork in addition to addressing more risks. Lastly, the example from the Bible prompts those in business to ensure proper planning before carrying out their business.
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