Psychological Capital

Question 1

I tend to agree with the results based on the PsyCap levels that have been reflected. A moderate level score on efficacy PsyCap fits me quite well. This is because I am always confident while setting my career goals and representing myself in career related activities. However, these aspects are usually neutralized when it comes to discussing my abilities in relation to my employment abilities. I do not score highly on this aspect, as it is something I have struggled with for a long time in my career. I tend to feel uncomfortable when such conversations arise.

When it comes to the resiliency aspect, the results are quite spot on. This is because I have always viewed myself highly in this aspect. It will take a long time for me to give up on something that I am working on. This is because I believe that there are numerous solutions to one problem, and as a result, if one fails, it does not necessarily mean that the others will fail too. I have already come to terms with the fact that things will not always go the way we plan, but that does not mean it will remain like that in the long-run.

I am very hopeful when it comes to my job too.  Having worked for some time, I have learned that despite the challenges being there, things tend to work out in the long-run. So long as you remain determined and do the right things, the “turbulence” is likely to give in and accord you a smooth sailing. That is why looking forward to the best tends to bring positive results.

However, I am not quite sure with the optimism score. This is because I usually thought of myself as being highly optimistic, but the results indicate a moderate level. Being in my career for some time has helped me grow in confidence. I have seen numerous good days, and this keeps me going with positive expectations even when things are not working as expected. That is why I thought I would score a high-level PsyCap on matters to do with optimism but that has not been the case.


Question 2

There are several ways that I can advance my career using my strengths. Among them is setting goals of what I ought to achieve within a certain period while working on various activities. Goal setting is something that I have shown confidence in hence it will not be a problem. Upon setting the relevant goals, this will work as motivation as I will be driven by the desire of achieving them hence advancing my career in the appropriate direction at the same time. As an individual, I have the ability to fix varied problems that would be prevalent in my job life. This is because I have the ability to think outside the box on most occasions. This is something that I can use to fix varied career shortcomings. I also have this ability to get through difficult times based on my past experiences. This is something that will come in handy when trying to move past the difficult encounters that I will have in my career. I will have the ability to recover without sabotaging my career in any way.


Question 3

Goal-setting can be used to enhance motivation and thereby improving job performance in the long-run. This is because goals tend to give direction to employees on what ought to be done and the relevant effort that is required for that matter (Latham, 2012). The willingness to work in order to attain the prescribed goals becomes the source of job motivation. Particular, clear and difficult goals are usually considered as being greater motivating factors. This is because clear and specific goals result in greater output and enhanced performance. Employees are normally engulfed with the feeling of triumph and pride upon attaining the goals and are usually set up in the attainment of the next goal. The presence of appropriate feedback directs the behavior of the employees and results to higher performance levels in general (Latham, 2012). This is because provision of feedback is viewed as a means of making clarifications, gaining reputation and regulating goal difficulties.


Question 4

Job satisfaction and employee engagement are likely to influence job performance. On the face of it, these concepts seem to be similar, but that is not the case. When it comes to employee engagement, it is more of the relationship that is established between the employee and the organization. An engaged employee tends to be enthusiastic and is fully absorbed in their work (Latham, 2012). As a result, he/she takes positive action in order to further the business’ interests and reputation. As a result, a business with favorable employee engagement is expected to perform highly compared to one that is lowly engaged.

When it comes to job satisfaction, an employee has the ability of being satisfied without necessarily being engaged in the job.  Satisfaction generally means being content with the current proceedings. This might be in terms of the payments, working hours and working environment among others (Latham, 2012). This is also likely to improve job performance since the employees want to remain in the employment due to the satisfaction that is derived.


Question 5

Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy

This is a motivational theory that asserts basic needs of the people ought to be actualized before they feel motivated to help them achieve higher level needs. The levels that make up the hierarchy include physiological, safety, love, esteem and self-actualization needs. According to the theory, people ought to be in good health, secure and safe with meaningful relationships coupled with confidence before they can achieve all that which they can (Hoffmann, 2007). This theory can be used to improve job performance by letting the employees know the importance of their roles to the organization. This is because when they are showed the value of their roles, they feel respected and hence are motivated to worker harder. Supporting employees in other aspects of their lives will help in bringing the best out of them.

Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation

In this theory, Herzberg has identified two factors that are likely to influence employee’s satisfaction and motivation. These include motivator and hygiene factors. Motivator factors include those factors that employees derive satisfaction from and motivate them to work harder. This includes aspects such as career progression, enjoying one’s work and feeling recognized. Hygiene factors, on the other hand, include company policies, salary, benefits and relationship with managers (Hoffmann, 2007). The theory can aid in job performance since when the employees are provided with the above factors, they will feel satisfied and motivated to work even harder. This is because they want to keep their jobs in the long-run due to the prevailing favorable working conditions.

Expectancy Theory

Expectancy theory asserts that people will make the decision on how to behave depending on what they expect the outcome of their behavior to be. A good example is where employees work harder in case they are expecting a pay rise. This theory can be used to improve job performance by way of the management setting achievable goals for the employees and give them rewards upon actualizing these goals. There is the need to ensure that employees place value on the rewards being offered.

Equity Theory

This theory is based on the ideology that people tend to be motivated by fairness. In case they identify aspects of inequality in the output or input ratios compared to the referent groups, they will feel the need for adjusting their input in order attain their perceived equity. The theory can aid in job performance by the employers establishing an environment that fosters equity. This is because the more employees perceive an equitable environment, the more they get motivated to perform various tasks.

Extrinsic Motivation

The theory asserts that behavior is normally influenced by external factors. People are more motivated to perform varied activities if they will receive a reward afterward, and not simply because they enjoy undertaking the activities (Hoffmann, 2007). Extrinsic motivators include things like promotion, pay, and feedback among others. This is a theory that can be used to increase job performance. A good example is when an employee knows that performing some activities to the best of their knowledge will result in a promotion; they will do as it is required of them hence improving their job performance in the process.



Hoffmann, S. (2007). Classical Motivation Theories – Similarities and Differences between them. München: GRIN Verlag GmbH.

Latham, G. (2012). Work motivation: History, Theory, Research, and Practice. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE.


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