State, county, city and other public health and other law enforcement agencies will receive information about the communicability, ways of transmission, morbidity, and even mortality of the disease. They may also get information regarding the methods of prevention like isolation and quarantine. The public health and law enforcement agencies will receive the data from state officials, who will be required to pass the data received from the CDC down to their jurisdictions.
Quarantine and isolation are non-medical interventions used to prevent the spread of infectious diseases among populations. However, they differ in the manner in which they are carried out. For isolation, sick people are separated from other people in the society, and their movement restricted to prevent the spread of the contagious disease. On the other hand, quarantine involves the separation of people who have been exposed to an infectious agent from other people. Although not ill, they have higher chances of infection.
There are various limitations in sharing disease-related information about patients. The data can be divided between health caregivers and public health authorities. On the other hand, the medical information of patients held in local and state health departments is protected by the law. On the other hand, personal health information may be disclosed to law enforcement agencies on demand or when it is found necessary. Public health and law enforcement officials have the mandate to share personal health information with other agencies depending on the purpose.
The State’s Pandemic Influenza Response Group should be comprised of representatives from all the departments which are concerned with the control of the spread of the disease. They include state and local health departments, state and local law enforcement and public safety, emergency management, the states homeland security council as well as representatives from the office of the attorney general.
According to many state statutes, a state of public health emergency is declared by the governor based on the information provided by health officials. A state of public health emergency is only declared when there is s threat of an illness or a health condition which is associated with a previously controlled infectious agent, causes a lot of harm to the population, and has the possibility of causing the deaths of a large number of people.
Declaration of a public health state of emergency has effects on the operations of public health and law enforcement departments. The health officials can order quarantine and isolation depending on the severity of the infectious disease. On the other hand, the law enforcement department should ensure that the restrictions put in place by the health departments are implemented efficiently. If the two departments work together, it will be easy to prevent the spread of the condition.
The state governments have the authority to enact laws and regulation to safeguard the people in the nation. In the case of a state of public health emergency, the state government can adopt policies which will help to save the life and health of people. As a result, they are charged with the responsibility to implement non-pharmaceutical interventions during an influenza pandemic.
There are various agencies which can take part in dealing with a state of public health emergency. They include public health and safety departments. However, to determine which agency will be involved, the state and federal agency plans will be required. They help to identify the tasks which should be performed by different agencies and under what statutory authority.
There are various limitations which can hinder the public health and law enforcement agencies from implementing the non-pharmaceutical interventions during an influenza pandemic. One of them is fear of violation of human rights as stated in the fourth amendment. Quarantine deprives the isolated people the freedom of movement. Additionally, implementation of NPIs is costly because the people who have been separated should be provided with the basic needs.
There are various things which the public health agencies should include in their operation plan to ensure that the exercise is useful. One of them is to determine the agencies which will be involved in the process. Additionally, the agency should also identify the personnel required to execute the program. All the resources both material and financial needed should also be determined to ensure that they are available during the execution of the plan.
To ensure sufficient staff and other necessary resources, they should prioritize the missions which are essential. It should also determine other purposes which will be required in the execution of the program. It is also necessary for the department to determine the availability of the material and human resources which will be needed for the implementation of the plan.
There are various steps which the court should take to ensure continuity of operations during an influenza pandemic. First, it should identify the missions which are critical and cannot be avoided. Additionally, it should also recognize the personnel with essential roles of the operation. As a result, the court can adjust the workers and resources in use so that they can be sufficient to continue with the activities during the pandemic.
Public health and law enforcement agencies, as well as courts, have coordinated during the operation ion an influenza epidemic. They develop memorandum and protocols which guide them in the execution of the operations. Hey also form groups comprised of representatives from the courts, law enforcement, and public health agencies.
Public health and law enforcement agencies should cooperate and communicate with the media to keep track of the progress of the situation. A joint information center should be used to pass information about the epidemic from all the agencies involved in the operation. The information which can be shared with the public include methods of prevention and control as well as areas to report suspected cases of the infection.
To deal with ill passengers and crew, they should be separated from other people. Additionally, they should wear a surgical mask if they can sustain it and also cover their mouths when coughing. For the patients who are not able to withstand the mask, they should be handled by caregivers with gloves.
In the airport, public health officers should meet the arriving flights. They should them put in place control measures as well as interview the crew. On the other hand, law enforcement officers will help to maintain law and order as well as implement the isolation and quarantine interventions.
In the airport, there are various sources of confusion on which level of government should be in charge. In international airports, there are several government officials involved. Additionally, more than one country can have control of the operations of the airport. In such a case, it becomes difficult to determine which level of government should take control of the services.
For the passengers exiting the aircrafts, the ones who are contagious are those with the signs and symptoms of influenza. Additionally, those a\who are in the late stages of incubation can also be contagious. The ones who had exposure to the causative agent become contagious after leaving the aircraft because they interact with different groups of people.
In different states, there may be variation in the agencies charged with the responsibility of enforcing quarantine orders. However, in most cases, this responsibility is associated with the federal government. The officials are charged with the responsibility to implement rules with the aim of protecting the public.
In some cases, states prefer law enforcement to implement quarantine and isolation orders. This has been found to be most effective in dealing with matters of epidemics. However, in some instances, law enforcement is not used in cases where 100% compliance is not required to deal with the outbreak.
Tribes are sovereign entities with the power to enact their own rules to control the spread of diseases. As a result, the local health authorities are responsible for the implementation of quarantine and isolation interventions in case of an outbreak.
The agency which should seek court orders for enforcement of non-pharmaceutical interventions in case of an epidemic. The provisions for obtaining orders should be included in the response and operation plans for them to be granted.
The public health and law enforcement agencies play an essential role in the delivery of food and medicine to isolated families. People who require medical attention are isolated in a health center where nurses, physicians band other health professionals are charged with the responsibility of providing the necessities to the isolated people. When people are kept in isolation centers, law enforcement officials should give them food and other basic needs.
To protect public health and law enforcement officers who handle victims during epidemics, proper training is offered to them on how to execute the operations. Additionally, they should also be provided with protective clothes and gadgets to be used during the epidemic to prevent them from contracting the infections.
Rationing, security, and communication of distribution points of vaccines should be based on the pandemic response plans. Everything should be planned before embarking on the operation to control the spread of the epidemic.
In most jurisdictions, all the public health and law enforcement officers do not have a copy of the pandemic influenza plan. However, they are trained to enlighten them on the activities which should be executed according to the plan, and how the epidemic should be dealt with.
In response to epidemic influenza, working groups should be developed which consist of public health and law enforcement officers. Additionally, the participants in the operations should frequently meet to discuss ways of responding to the matter. Training and effective communication should also be executed among the groups to ensure that can collate during the operations.
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