Qualitative Research Questions

  1. What Is The Attitude Of Male Teams Toward And Preferences For Female Coaches?

The goal of this question is to identify and characterize the mindset, and attitude of male teams towards female coaches as well as to establish male teams preferences and inclinations for coaches of the female gender. Comeaux(2015) states that while statistics show that most male teams are headed by a male coach,and most female-headed male teams have performed dismally due to various factors such as insubordination and sexual harassment, no empirical study has been conducted to establish the attitude of male teams towards female coaches and their preference for cross-gendered relationship in the field. As such, this question will add to the literature towards this end and fill the gap in the literature.

  1. What Factors Influence/Explain The Lack Of A Female Coach-Male Athlete Relationship Demographic Characteristic In Sports?

This question will seek to establish the factors that explain the lack of, or the few numbers of female coaches heading male teams. According to LaVoi(2016), over the last 40 years, the number of women coaching male teams has remained remarkably static at about 2-3 percent, while men occupy 97-98 percent of coaching positions in men’s sports and over 50 percent of the head coach position in women’s sports. Therefore, answering this question will help explain this disparity, and in extent help in coming up with policy steps that might be tailored to address this disparity. Additionally, Comeaux(2015)states that empirical research that has attempted to explain the discrepancy is very limited.The author adds that majority of the studies on the subject have focused on investigating same-sex dyads in which the team and coach are males or of the same gender, or mixed-gender dyads wherein the sports team is female while the coach is male. Thus,this question would fill this gap and add to the literature.

  1. What Benefits/Advantages Do Cross-Gendered Female Coach-Male Teams Derive From Such A Coaching Relationship?

This question seeks at establishing the perceived benefits that a female-headed male team might contract by virtue ofinstituting such a cross-gendered coaching relationship in a particular male team. According to LaVoi(2016), limited research has been conducted in the area of cross-gendered coaching relationship with specific leanings on female-headed male teams.Comeaux(2015) states that most researches in the field have focused on investigating same-sex dyads in which theteam members and the coachare of the same gender or mixed-gender dyads wherein the coach is male, and team is comprised of female players. Therefore, answering this question will fill ahuge gap in research in the field of sports management.

  1. What Are The Challenges And Barriers That Arise When Female Coaches Are Appointed To Head Male Teams?

The goal of this question is to identify the challenges that are usually faced by teams when a male sports team is headed by a female coach. According toJowett & Lavallee(2007), in some sporting institutions and organizations, cross-gender female leadership has been associated with challenges such as sexual harassment, insubordination, gender stereotyping, glass ceiling among other challenges.  Answering this question will inform policy decisions that are geared towards providing a conducive environment for female coaches to play a more active role in sports management in the United States, as well as help further the achievement of the Title IX.

  1. Do Male Teams Have A Preference toward Male or Female Head Coaches?

The goal of this question is to establish whether male teams have any preference for coaches of a particular gender, their skills, expertise, and competence notwithstanding. Answering the question will help ascertain whether male teams have an inclination or predilection towards coaches of a particular gender based on preconceived innately gender specific attributes that make the team have a preference for that particular gender.



Bufkin, M. A. (2006). Qualitative Studies: Developing Good Research Questions.

Comeaux, E. (2015). Introduction to Intercollegiate Athletics. Baltimore, Maryland: John Hopkins University Press.

Jowett, S., & Lavallee, D. (2007). Social Psychology in Sport (Vol. 10). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

LaVoi, N. M. (2016). Women in Sports Coaching. New York, NY: Routledge.

Lichtman, M. (2013). Qualitative Research in Education: A User’s Guide. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc.

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