Treponema pallidum is one of the pathogenic bacteria causing syphilis. The origin of the bacteria has been discovered to be in America after which it has spread to other parts of the world. Like the spirillum and the spirochete, this pathogenic bacterium has a spirally shaped body. According to the world news, there are still further debates on the origin of this bacterium as contrast to its origin has not been clear (Knauf et al 2018). Evidence based research has been fundamental in separating the bacteria species especially in the Treponematosis. The examination of skeletons is a breakthrough in evident analysis of bone alteration. Countries like the Saudi Arabia and Sahelian are still being affected by the yaws with the even distribution of syphilis across the globe. My research will use various methods of data collection and analysis to improve the scientists understanding of the pathogenic bacteria.
My paper will be focused in discussing the basic aspects of the bacterium and its lifespan. Again, the research has been lowered to the T. pallidum species which mainly interferes with the cardiovascular and neurologic damages (Cejkova et al 2012). The T. pallidum has three sub species namely; Treponema pallidum pallidum, Treponema pallidum endemicum and Treponema pallidum pertenue. The sub species are as a result of evolution of the treponema species. Biologically as research is concerned, less molecular experiments have been done in the case of this species of pathogenic bacteria (Mark et al 2018). My research will be highlighting the places that require improvement for the better understanding of the bacteria. Interestingly enough, some of the importance of the bacteria under this subgroup will be discussed. The main aim of the design paper is to help researchers and learners better understand Treponema pallidum and its subspecies.
Since my research area is mainly focused on the treponema species, I have a large area of study but I will lower down to specific regions. My selected areas will depend on the trends of syphilis infections and yaws. I will give the geographic areas with higher numbers of infections. Definitely, I have chosen the areas since they will give me the chance to do extensive research. This research will also require a couple of months since I will have to travel in different parts of the country to make better findings that will help in making proper recommendations (Kestelyn 2010). Even though that time seems long, I have to admit that the results will increase the peoples understanding on this group of bacteria.
Tools required for the research will range from the common laboratory instruments to -resources of studies. Experimentation will be vital to prove the existence of the subspecies and how the bacteria can be cultured to aid in anatomic and physiological understanding of the bacteria (Stamm 2015). The study will start will identification of the habitat of the bacteria followed by various subsequent processes of examination. The research will be based on experimentation and observation. In so doing, the main research will shed light bringing contrast to the aspects of bacteria. The project may require funding from the school, other sources of finance will come from my parents who have been on my side since I started learning. I will closely review every idea of my proposal during the main project to ensure they are on point.
Research / Experimental approach
The experimental approach will help in the success of my research due to the qualitative and quantitative research methods. However, a large part of research will rely in laboratory experiments. Even though the previous researches have tried to explain the differences in the species, more intensive experiments will further the knowledge. Experiments will be carried out in skeletons to obtain information about the pathogens. Since the infection has been treated with biotics and other experimental drugs, it has been evident that the infections have continued to emerge (de Melo et al 2010). The genetic make-up of the bacteria is important in learning their sequence and composition. The origin of the bacteria is important but much weight should be laid in the treatment of the disease caused by the pathogens.
Analysis of the bones by the palenothologists through experimented research has at least drawn line in finding the most trusted results as far as the origin of the infection is concerned. From the research bases, the final stage of the syphilis infection is always characterized by scars in the bones (Kazadi, Asiedu and Mitja 2014). The experimental way of data collection is more accurate than other methods especially in this form of research. As disease causing microorganisms, the hospital set up will be fundamental to the study. The treponemes are characterized by clinical manifestation. The stages are differentiated by various signs and symptoms that are unique to a specific stage (Elkin and Sedova 2018). The final stage is the tertiary stage which results into cardiovascular and neurologic problems. In some cases, there have been cases of congenital syphilis which usually result to abnormal children or even dead. The first stage of infection has no physical signs and requires tests (Rinaldi 2012). It is only through experimentation of the body fluids where unknowns can be determined at primary stages.
The structure and anatomy of the pallidum species encourage experimentation as way of gathering knowledge about them. The nature of these species like being 6 to 15 micrometers in length and 0.1 to 0.2 micrometers in width encourages the use of microscopes in the research especially the scanning electron microscope. The classification of the pathogens has fundamentally relied on clinical manifestation of the respective causative agents. From previous experiments and research, it has been found that T carateum causes pinta, Treponema pallidum subsp pallidum causes venereal syphilis, T pallidum subsp endemicum causes endemic syphilis, and T pallidum subsp pertenue causes yaws. Through the experiments I will be able to formulate the specific conditions that the bacteria require to thrive, like temperature and pH. I will also be able to gather information of replication, growth and reproduction. The composition of the organisms such as lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. These can only be achieved through lab experiments. I analyzed some of the experiments carried out by other scientists and even conducted my own experiments.
Observation as a way that I will use to collect data is also important and carries equivalent weight. Parthenogenesis of syphilis is divided into four stages with observation signs and symptoms. They are in observable intervals and dominates in the human population. Since humans are the only natural hosts of the T. pallidum, especially, the T. pallidum subsp pallidum and infection occurs through unprotected coitus with infected persons, information can be gathered through simple observation (Rothschild, B. (2005). Some research findings have formulated that the infection occurs through minuscule breaks in the skin or through the mucus membrane. In the female gender, lesion is on the labia, vaginal walls or cervix and in men, it is at the glans of the penis (Sarkodie et al 2016). Other observable signs and symptoms may be a chancre which occurs on tongue, lips, anus, tonsils and other skin areas.
In vitro studies, the observation made in the subspecies T. pallidum and T. pertenue, they attach themselves to various cells and can affect tissues and organs making the organ system. The effects of the pallidum species have been very virulent in the human population. The human population has been challenged by the adverse effects of the disease (Harper et al 2008). From observation, syphilis has caused death of many people since the time it was discovered. It has caused biological control of the population and economic instability in most countries. As a disease, the information concerning its spread can be gathered through observation of its signs and symptoms. I went to a near-by health facility and inquired with some of the medicine officers about the nature of syphilis. During the interview, they showed me some of the images of patients with the disease. I visited many sites in the internet and even read some of the books written about syphilis and the treponema species (Peeling and Hook 2005). I also had group discussion with friends and instructors on the effects of syphilis. I inquired with some of the historians to learn about the origin of the disease and implication and effects in the past.
From the findings, the Treponema pallidum sub sp pallidum causes syphilis which is sexually transmitted and is characterized by chronic infection and dissemination of tissues (Roberts 2013). Through non-equilibrating pH gel electrophoresis (NEPHGE) and isoelectric focusing to analyze the proteome of T. pallidum it was determined that 148 T, pallidum protein spots were present. Further analysis of determining the essential proteins for antibody responses will be done by immunoblot analysis using human sera from patients suffering from syphilis in different stages of infection (Marks 2018). The experiments carried out determined that a group of unique antigens reactive with the human blood was identified. It was discovered that the proteins carried antigen TpF1 and other proteins were also present. Among the proteins were TP0584, TP0608, and TP0965 which are useful for diagnosis and vaccination.
The Endemic syphilis, caused by endemicum species is found mainly in the Middle East, Central and South Africa. From the interviews conducted on the medical staff, the transmission of Endemic syphilis is through non sexual contact from human-to-human. The transmission is associated with poor hygiene and its clinical manifestations are quite similar with yaws and syphilis (Carter, Nevin and Hedley 2018). The incubation period for T.p. pallidum is usually 3 weeks but up to 3 months. It has the smallest bacterial genomes approximately 1.14 million pairs. Additionally, it has limited metabolic capabilities. As a survival tactic, the genome reduction is an adaptive feature in rich mammal tissue environment. Unlike other spirochetes, the T. pallidum is usually flat and wavy.
As the focus of the research is to define all the aspects of the bacteria Treponema pallidum, this study will be a break through and will aid in the better understanding of the species. The classification of the pathogens has fundamentally relied on clinical manifestation of the respective causative agents. From previous experiments and research, it has been found that T carateum causes pinta, Treponema pallidum subsp pallidum causes venereal syphilis, T pallidum subsp endemicum causes endemic syphilis, and T pallidum subsp pertenue causes yaws.
The species has economic importance as well as biological. As pathogenic microorganism, there should be preventive measures to protect the human race. Application of antibiotics and other chemicals have been used as ways of controlling the infection. Use of condoms and abstinence are the recommended methods of protection from syphilis. The closely related spirochetes have been discovered to cause endemic syphilis, pinta and yaws. The group has not been continuously cultured under vitro conditions. However, multiplication is usually obtained in tissue culture. Since the T. pallidum species cannot be cultured in vitro, the use of mutational analysis and molecular genetics is impossible for their study. Definitely, this has led to the limited information on parthenogenesis and physiology of the organism.
The better understanding of these species will help in formulating treatment vaccines and diagnosis. As the main aim of this paper is to make people understand the species and all aspects, the knowledge will help in establishment of programs and control measures. The better understanding of the species will help in easy learning, controlled research and improved knowledge on the Treponema species.
Carter, E. Nevin, W. and Hedley, L. (2018) ‘Syphilis: diagnosis and management options’, The Pharmaceutical Journal 300(7911), online: https://www.pharmaceutical-journal.com/learning/learning-article/syphilis-diagnosis-and-management-options/20204529.article?firstPass=false.
Cejkova, D. Zobanikova, M. Chen, L. Pospisilova, P. Strouhal, M. Qin, X. et al. (2012) ‘Whole genome sequences of three Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue strains: yaws and syphilis treponemes differ in less than 0.2% of the genome sequence’, PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 6(1), e1471.
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