Research on Abortion


Decisions to procure an abortion are primarily informed by diverse, multiple, and interrelated reasons. Abortion has existed for an extended period, resulting in both positive and negative impacts on society. The main contention regarding the practice is the difference of opinion between religion and science or the secular culture. Most of the widespread disapproval of the practice has been caused by the influence of Christianity in the Western Civilizations (Johnson and Joseph 42). The late 20th century saw several distinct nations begin the process of legalizing abortion, including the United States. It was a departure from the 19th century trend when most countries banned the practice by passing various legislations to that effect. The most frequently mentioned motives include the interference with their school, work, or other responsibilities if they were to carry the pregnancies to term. Some women also quote the lack of financial resources to cater for a child’s needs as the motivation for the decision to abort.

Literature Review

According to Megan (40), the discourse on the subject of abortion often intensifies when a section of the society perceives it as a birth control alternative. According to the pro-choice movements, several methods can be used to realize birth control. Some of them include natural contraception, use of pills, and injections among others. Except for extreme circumstances such as rape, women should take adequate precaution to avoid pregnancy if they do not intend to carry them to fruiting. Engaging in unprotected sex intentionally with the intention of procuring abortion should be condemned. Women should take control and use appropriate measures to prevent unwanted pregnancies if they want the right to control their bodies (Megan 60).

It is immoral for a civilized society to let one human to go scot-free after intentionally harming or taking the life of another. Abortion primarily falls under intentional harm albeit to an innocent life without protection (Ronli 212). The only security they can be guaranteed is from government legislation. In contemporary society, women have various options to choose from in case they are not interested in keeping a child. However, they have to bring them to term. The most viable options include taking the child to an orphanage, child services, or giving them up for adoption. These options grant the women the chance to continue living their lives without having to care for a child they do not want.

Another danger of abortion is the possibility of complications, both psychological and physical (Pourreza and Aziz 31). Many women have been affected mentally after procuring abortions. In most cases, these decisions are made hastily and without necessary consultations. Consequently, stress weighs them down if they are unable to justify their actions either to themselves or to their partners. Such psychological issues may turn to depression in the end, thus affecting them substantially.

Abortions have also led to physical complications to the women who procure the services. For instance, many women have died from these procedures either because of using secret methods to get rid of the fetus or unsuccessful operations. Either way, it is difficult to reconcile these deaths with the need to get rid of innocent and defenseless human lives. Women who undertake these procedures stand a high chance of experiencing ectopic pregnancies. It refers to the situation in which fertilized eggs are implanted outside the uterus, leading to more complications to the woman (Elisabeth 440). Other risks include an increase in the chances of miscarriage and pelvic inflammatory ailments.

Legalizing abortion leads to immorality in society and increases the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. The contemporary society is filled with abundant information regarding teen-pregnancy and the ways of preventing them, especially in movies. Consequently, most teenagers and the youth today ignore other risks associated with sexual intercourse, and this new mindset has made most of them ignore the dangers posed by sexually transmitted diseases like AIDS and syphilis as they concentrate on pregnancy and how to avoid or terminate them.

Counter Argument

            According to Kirkman, Maggie et al. (117), abortion entails the removal of fetus or embryo from a woman’s uterus to end a pregnancy. He argues that in the first trimester when abortions are done, a fetus is incapable of being independent of the mothers and cannot exist without them. It is primarily a part of the mother being that it cannot survive outside the mother’s womb as a separate entity. It cannot be said to have attained personhood despite meeting the definition of human life. ‘Personhood’ here denotes the condition of being an individual or having the fundamental properties that make a person. Just as human life begins at conception under normal circumstances, the same applies to fertilized eggs when in-vitro fertilization is used.

Another reason that critiques give on why abortion should be legalized is to secure the future of many teens who find themselves in compromising situations. Once a teenager becomes pregnant, her future deems substantially. Some of the problems they often encounter include dropping out of school, depending on government aid to raise their children, and the inability to receive adequate prenatal care. Some of them also develop health problems during this period with little information on how to handle them. The freedom to abort under the law allows these girls to get a second chance to live right and avoid these many problems (Cates, Willard et al. 4). They can gain valuable advice from professionals regarding better ways of taking care of themselves.

Women have always resorted to abortion when faced with unwanted or unintended pregnancies even when it is not permitted by law (Faúndes and Iqbal 13). The lack of laws regulating the practice forces women to risk their lives. They resort to clandestine deals where unlicensed or unqualified individuals attend to them. Most of these operations are conducted under unsanitary conditions that create health challenges. Unsafe abortions, particularly in countries, which have banned it, cause suffering and death to many women worldwide.

One of the major causal factors of maternal mortality in nations with restricted or with limited access is unsafe abortion. Studies by various researchers and agencies have depicted the risk of dying from an unsafe abortion as a great inequality. For instance, economically privileged women who procure abortions in private health facilities are less likely to encounter any complications. Public hospitals, which mostly serve poor women, register the most cases of death (Rosenthal 97). Others also suffer from various acute and chronic conditions. Some of these implications can be social, thus, affecting how the victims relate with a society like chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Providing safe and accessible abortion options will help to safeguard the lives of many women.

Abortion has been used to save the lives of many women who were at risk due to health complications arising from their pregnancy. In case the life of the expectant mother is at risk, necessary action must be taken to assist them. Some of the possible complications include excessive bleeding, injuries from accidents, uterine problems, and stillbirths. Such situations call for drastic measures to save the life of the mother. Leaving the fetus may lead to the death of the women, and this could make the survival of the fetus impossible. (Faúndes and Iqbal 21).

They have the responsibility of bearing the physical consequences of unintended or unwanted conceptions. During this period, they may suffer injuries that are related to maternity such as obstructed labor or bleeding. Despite stated objectives regarding laws illegalizing abortion, they play a discriminatory role of undermining the capacity of women to make informed decisions regarding their lives and bodies. The tendency to box women out of decision-making even on critical issues is also evident in the political and economic sphere.


In short, the debate on abortion is not likely to die down soon. In spite of the change in attitude by many countries to legalize the practice, there is still much to be done. The ideologies of Christianity and science pose the most significant conflict on abortion. It is noteworthy that despite the constant criticism, permitting abortion under the law has proved to be more constructive in saving lives than decriminalizing it. It gives the government an opportunity to watch over the exercise safely. Lastly, some section of the women does feel like making abortion illegal denies them their right since there are those instances that it is either their life or that of the unborn kid.



Work cited

Works Cited

Cates, Willard et al. “The Public Health Impact Of Legal Abortion: 30 Years Later”. Guttmacher Institute, 2014, Accessed 17 Nov 2018.

Faúndes, Anibal, and Iqbal H. Shah. “Evidence supporting broader access to safe, legal abortion.” International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 131.S1 (2015).

Johnson, Stephen D., and Joseph B. Tamney. “Factors related to inconsistent life-views.” Review of Religious Research (2018): 40-46.

Kirkman, Maggie, et al. “Reasons women give for abortion: a review of the literature.” Archives of women’s mental health 12.6 (2019): 365-378.

Pourreza, Abolghasem, and Aziz Batebi. “Psychological consequences of abortion among the post-abortion care-seeking women in Tehran.” Iranian Journal of Psychiatry 6.1 (2016): 31.

Rosenthal, Elisabeth. “Legal Or Not, Abortion Rates Compare.” Nytimes.Com, 2017, Accessed 17 Nov 2018.

Sifris, Ronli. “Restrictive regulation of abortion and the right to health.” Medical law review 18.2 (2010): 185-212.

Thee, Megan. “Public Opinion On Abortion.” The Caucus, 2018, Accessed 17 Nov 2018.